Introduction: Acute hyperglycaemia may occur at a healthy person or a patient with diabetes. If the patient does not notice a high level of blood glucose, complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis or diabetic hyperosmolar acetic syndrome may occur. Both complications are life-threatening, therefore ways of preventing and treating them are often being investigated. Purpose: Purpose of the thesis is to present innovations in treating patients with diabetes in case of acute hyperglycaemia. Methods: A descriptive method has been used, with an overview of the original and transparent scientific articles published over the past 10 years. The literature used was searched by the CINAHL, The Cochrane Collaboration, Science Direct, Medline (PubMed) and COBIB.SI databases. Results: Based on the literature review it was found that, in addition to self-control, many technical devices for preventing acute hyperglycaemia are available. Patients with diabetes use a continuous infusion insulin pump and a sensor for blood glucose measurement. In a few years, an artificial pancreas with a closed loop and a micro continuous infusion insulin pump will come onto the market. Also, experts are developing various sensors to inform the user about the improper operation of one of these devices. Research shows that diagnostic and clinical criteria are unchanged. Moreover, treatment has progressed greatly over the last five years: they found out the appropriate dose of insulin in case of acute hyperglycaemia, demonstrated the efficacy of the subcutaneous fasting analogue of insulin, the differences in the outcome of ketoacidosis treatment with respect to the tonicity of the fluid and the possibility of using dialysis treatment. Discussion and conclusion: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases which also means an increased risk of acute hyperglycaemia. Research has shown that people are aware of the severity of the problem, as they are constantly looking for new solutions to prevent hyperglycaemia. Also, the majority of hospitals is following the latest scientific evidence. At the same time, they are drawing attention to the poor knowledge of some healthcare professionals who are the key in identifying and treating hyperglycaemia. They also investigate which treatment of acute complications is the least invasive and at the same time most effective.