Cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) is a plant that is currently undergoing a big popularity leap in agronomy and economy. Cannabis is a plant that can be widely used in the industry. Besides the traditional use in different industries (car, paper, food and textile) is more and more common to use cannabinoids in medicine. In this b. sc. thesis, cannabis is described based on its morphology, growth, confusion around Latin naming of the plant, synthesis pathways connected to the production of cannabinoids and use of different parts of the plant with emphasis to genetic differences among different types of C. sativa. The five chemotypes that have been discovered until now are presented in the thesis along with the genetic background of the inheritance of the chemotypes and methods to determine them. There are also mentioned the methods to determine genetic differences in the Cannabis family and the draft of the cannabis genome. In the end, there is a short presentation of biotech approaches to hemp breeding and cannabinoid production, which are currently being researched.