The gluteus medius belongs in the category of pelvic girdle muscles. It is located beneath the gluteus maximus, originating from the outer surface of the ilium and inserting on the greater trochanter. The main function of this muscle is to abduct the hip, while it also helps with the internal and external rotation of the hip and its flexion and extension. A normal functioning of these muscles is key to ensuring proximal stability in movement of the lower extremities, mainly stabilizing the pelvis in the frontal and transversal plane. A weakened muscle function of the gluteus medius may be portrayed as increased adduction and internal rotation of the hip joint during activities, such as running, squatting, and climbing stairs. This irregular biomechanics of the lower extremities is often the cause of the patellofemoral and iliotibial syndrome, and may cause injury to the cruciate ligament due to the valgus in the knee.
The purpose of the thesis is to research and explain the function of the gluteus medius and the importance of its strength training. For better understanding, we begin by introducing the anatomy of the hip and the gluteus medius, its function, and pain conditions which arise due to muscle weakness. We then go on to describe the importance of strengthening this muscle, and the consequences of its weakening. The main part is dedicated to the strengthening of the muscle and the exercises which are suitable for strength training. The exercises are divided into those performed in a standing and lying position, and then further subdivided into exercises of low and high intensity. Finally, we provide guidelines for including these exercises into training programs for beginners, as well as experienced athletes.