Rose of Damask (Rosa damascena Mill.) is also known as the queen of roses. It is located all over the world, particularly in Bulgaria, Turkey, Morocco, China and Iran. It is a rose hybrid, derived from three different roses. Its history and source is not fully known, so the description of the history is slightly different between the authors. Rose of Damask is used for decorative purposes and is grown for use in perfume, cosmetic, food industry and for medical purposes due to its pleasant smell. Essential rose oil is a product of steam distillation of rose blossoms which yields rose water as a by-product. Its essential oil is one of the most expensive essential oils in the world. The main components of the essential oil are beta-citronellol, nerol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, geranyl, heptadecane, nonadecane, geraniol, methyl eugenol, eugenol and geranyl acetate. The specific aroma results from the presence of beta-damascenone, beta-damascenon and beta-ionone. The content and quality of Damask rose essential oil is affected by many factors, the most important are: the developmental stage of flower buds, the date and time of harvesting, storage and fermentation, distillation conditions, pruning, genotype and genetic engineering and health status of the plants. To obtain the essential oil of the best quality and a suitable amount of secondary metabolites, it is necessary to follow the rules of good agricultural practice.