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Karierna odločitev v socialnem in kulturnem kontekstu
Lovšin, Miha (Avtor), Krek, Janez (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/4355/ Novo okno

Izvleček
Začetek ukvarjanja s kariero sovpada z začetkom industrijskega načina proizvodnje pred več kot 100 leti. Sčasoma je zlasti karierna odločitev postala predmet interesa posameznikov in družbe. V prvem poglavju pokažemo, kako se je skozi to obdobje industrijska družba spreminjala v družbo tehnološkega razvoja in v današnjo družbo znanja. Hkrati s tem pa se je spreminjal tudi pogled na posameznikovo kariero. V industrijski družbi je bila družbena ureditev hierarhična in statična, trg dela je bil predvidljiv, obstajala so močna nacionalna gospodarstva. Z razvojem prometa in informacijsko-komunikacijske tehnologije je postajal intenzivnejši boj za konkurenčnost, podjetja so morala za obstanek vedno več vlagati v razvoj, trg dela postane vse bolj nepredvidljiv. Še zlasti stopnja izobrazbe postaja vse bolj ključnega pomena za posameznikov uspeh na trgu dela. Aktualni mednarodni podatki kažejo, da so na vrhu gospodarske uspešnosti na znanju temelječa podjetja za produkcijo storitev. Teoretiki družbe v tem smislu današnjo družbo označujejo kot družbo znanja. V Sloveniji statistični kazalci kažejo porast deleža brezposelnih z višjo in visoko izobrazbo in deleža zaposlitev za skrajšani delovni čas. Čeprav današnja družba znanja temelji na znanju, pa stopnja izobrazbe ne predstavlja več ključnega dejavnika za uspešnost karierne poti. Vprašanje, ki ga v tem smislu zastavimo kot osrednje znotraj raziskovanja karierne odločitve v socialnem in kulturnem kontekstu, je, zakaj so izmed vseh posameznikov, vključenih v isti izobraževalni sistem, ne glede na akademsko kvalifikacijo, nekateri uspešni pri uporabi znanja oz. svoji karieri, drugi pa ne. S pregledom teoretskih diskurzov na področju kariernega razvoja, izbire in odločanja smo raziskali, kako se je v zadnjih 100 letih s spreminjanjem družbenega konteksta spreminjal tudi pogled na posameznikovo kariero. Ugotovili smo, da se nabor znanja iz tega področja zbira, dograjuje in spreminja. Identificirali smo dve glavni teoretski smeri, in sicer psihološke teorije in sociološke teorije. Prve utemeljujejo, da je za to, kakšno karierno pot bo posameznik imel, ključno, da pozna svoje lastnosti, sposobnosti in interese, da se zaveda izobraževalnih in zaposlitvenih možnosti, da ima veščine odločanja ter veščine za prehod med različnimi vrstami in stopnjami izobraževanja in za prehod na trg dela. Sociološke teorije po drugi strani utemeljujejo, da posameznikovo socialno in kulturno ozadje vpliva na vrsto in na uspešnost niza posameznikovih kariernih odločitev, iz katerih izhaja njegova karierna pot. Teorija interakcije posameznika s skupnostjo kombinira psihološki in sociološki vidik in raziskuje posameznikovo karierno pot tako z vidika družbe kot z vidika posameznika. Izhaja iz tega, da posameznik razvija kariero v interakciji z družbo, ki ga obdaja. Glavna razlika med starejšimi in sodobnejšimi teoretskimi diskurzi pokaže, da se ne glede na teoretsko smer, karierna odločitev ne zaznava kot enkratno dejanje, ampak kot ponavljajoča se aktivnost, integrirana v posameznikovo karierno pot. V poglavju Aplikacija teoretskih konceptov v svetovalno delo in politike smo nadalje raziskovali, na kakšen način se teoretska spoznanja prenašajo v razumevanje prakse svetovalnega dela, v trenutno slovensko prakso svetovalnega dela v šoli in v evropske in nacionalne politike, povezane s svetovalnim delom. Ugotovili smo, da na prakse svetovalnega dela v šoli najbolj vplivajo psihološke teorije. Prakse se osredotočajo na pomoč posamezniku pri identificiranju lastnosti, sposobnosti in interesov, pri spoznavanju razpoložljivih možnosti izobraževanja in usposabljanja, pri sprejemanju odločitev in pri prehajanju med različnimi stopnjami in vrstami izobraževanja. Kot sledi iz definicije vseživljenjske karierne orientacije, se prakse svetovalnega dela poleg pomoči posameznikom pri sprejemanju odločitev osredotočajo še na pomoč pri vodenju kariere. Slednje se kaže kot izobraževanje za kariero, v katerega se umešča predvsem učenje veščin vodenja kariere. Pregled praks svetovalnega dela v Sloveniji pokaže, da v šolskem prostoru prevladujejo tiste, ki se osredotočajo na pomoč posameznikom pri sprejemanju odločitev, še zlasti pri izbiri nadaljnjega izobraževanja. Izobraževanje za kariero je v slovenskem šolskem prostoru prisotno le izjemoma. Na ravni strateških dokumentov in dokumentov s področja izobraževanja v EU in v Sloveniji so med dejavniki uspešnosti kariere najpogosteje stopnja izobrazbe in vseživljenjsko učenje. Na ravni dokumentov, ki se neposredno nanašajo na svetovalno delo, se osrednji vpliv na uspešnost kariere v družbi znanja pripisuje učenju veščin vodenja kariere, ki omogočajo posamezniku, da sprejema ustrezne odločitve na svoji karierni poti. Izhajanje iz determiniranosti socialnega in kulturnega ozadja, kar je značilnost socioloških teorij, po drugi strani ne pušča na voljo veliko prostora za svetovalčevo intervencijo. V praksi svetovalnega dela v šoli in tudi v politikah na tem področju bistvenega vpliva socioloških teorij zato nismo zasledili. V polju teoretskih debat nismo zaznali iskanja povezav med predstavniki omenjenih dveh teoretskih vej, razen v teoriji interakcije posameznika s skupnostjo. Čeprav ta teorija utemeljuje, da okolje vpliva na oblikovanje posameznikovih lastnosti, sposobnosti in interesov in hkrati predstavlja okvir, znotraj katerega se razvija posameznikova kariera, pa ni eksaktna glede razlage mehanizmov, ki takšno interakcijo omogočajo. Za razumevanje karierne odločitve v socialnem in kulturnem kontekstu pa je ključno identificirati prav te mehanizme. Z empiričnim delom smo preverjali povezanost elementov, ki smo jih identificirali kot ključne na strani posameznika in na strani družbe. Na strani posameznika so to veščine vodenja kariere, na strani družbe pa socialni, kulturni in ekonomski kapital. Rezultati raziskave pokažejo, da je posameznikova karierna pot statistično pomembno pozitivno povezana z veščinami vodenja kariere in ekonomskim kapitalom. Izmed posameznih veščin je ustreznost karierne poti najmočneje povezana z veščino zavedanja sebe, najšibkeje pa z veščino odločanja. Ustreznost karierne poti je torej najmočneje povezana s poznavanjem svojih sposobnosti, lastnih omejitev na poti do kariernega cilja, obvladovanjem učinkovitega učenja, védenjem, kaj posameznika zanima, z dojemanjem dela kot vrednote, željo po učenju novega, verjetjem v zmožnost doseganja cilja (indikatorji veščine zavedanja sebe). S posameznikovimi veščinami vodenja kariere so statistično pomembno povezane vse tri oblike kapitala. Najmočneje so veščine vodenja kariere povezane z ekonomskim kapitalom, najšibkeje pa s socialnim kapitalom. Izmed posameznih indikatorjev ekonomskega kapitala so veščine vodenja kariere najmočneje povezane z zadovoljstvom z gmotnim položajem, najšibkeje pa s številom tehničnih dobrin. Izmed posameznih veščin vodenja kariere sta ekonomski in kulturni kapital najmočneje povezana z veščino zavedanja sebe, najmanj pa z veščino odločanja. S povezanostjo s socialnim kapitalom je ravno obratno, socialni kapital je najmočneje povezan z veščino odločanja, najšibkeje pa z veščino zavedanja sebe. Posameznikovo doseženo stopnjo izobrazbe kot kategorijo kulturnega kapitala smo obravnavali posebej, in sicer v iskanju odgovora na ključno vprašanje, postavljeno na začetku: zakaj so izmed vseh posameznikov, vključenih v isti izobraževalni sistem, ne glede na akademsko kvalifikacijo, nekateri uspešni pri uporabi znanja oz. svoji karieri, drugi pa ne. Raziskava potrdi, da je izmed vseh indikatorjev kulturnega kapitala dokončana lastna izobrazba najmočneje povezana z ustreznostjo posameznikove karierne poti. Prav tako raziskava potrdi, da je dokončana lastna izobrazba statistično pomembno povezana z veščinami vodenja kariere. Vendar pa je dokončana lastna izobrazba s posameznikovimi veščinami vodenja kariere povezana šibkeje kot bralna pismenost in udejstvovanje na kulturnih dogodkih. Raziskava še pokaže, da je dokončana lastna izobrazba najmočneje povezana z veščino prehajanja (poznavanje bistva zaposlitvenega razgovora, obvladovanje pisanja ponudb za zaposlitev, prijav za vpis v izobraževanje, naravnanost na karierni cilj), z veščino odločanja pa sploh nima statistično pomembne povezanosti. Raziskava tudi pokaže, da razlike med brezposelnimi in zaposlenimi glede izobrazbe niso statistično pomembne. Prav tako ni statistično pomembnih razlik med brezposelnimi in zaposlenimi glede kulturnega kapitala, socialnega kapitala, veščine zavedanja možnosti in glede veščine odločanja. So pa med brezposelnimi in zaposleni pomembne statistične razlike glede naslednjih spremenljivk (v vrstnem redu od najbolj do najmanj pomembnih): karierna pot, ekonomski kapital, veščine prehajanja, veščine zavedanja sebe, veščine vodenja kariere. Pri pomembnosti razlik med brezposelnimi in zaposlenimi glede ekonomskega kapital pojasnimo, da gre dejansko za posledico dejstva, da je posameznik brezposeln. Glede ostalih elementov ugotovimo, da stopnja dosežene izobrazbe ne odraža ustreznosti karierne poti, in razvitosti veščin vodenja kariere, še posebej veščine prehajanja ter veščine zavedanja sebe. Kot potrdi raziskava, pa so prav to bistveni elementi uspešnosti pri zaposlovanju. Empirični del torej potrdi povezanost elementov, ki smo jih identificirali na strani posameznika in na strani družbe. S tem smo prispevali k večji eksaktnosti teoretskega koncepta interakcije posameznika s skupnostjo, saj smo identificirali možni mehanizem, ki omogoča razlago te interakcije. Skladno z ugotovitvami predlagamo nadaljnja raziskovalna vprašanja, kot so: kakšen je vpliv različnih kultur (jezikovne, ekonomske manjšine) na razvoj veščine zavedanja sebe; kako lahko šola usposablja posameznika za veščine vodenja kariere znotraj obstoječih izobraževalnih programov (predmeti, obvezni program, izbirni program); kaj lahko družba stori za povečanje ekonomskega, socialnega in kulturnega kapitala z vidika razvoja veščin vodenja kariere, še posebej z vidika veščine zavedanja sebe in veščine prehajanja.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:veščine vodenja kariere
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorsko delo/naloga (mb31)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:11437129 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:242
Število prenosov:77
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Career choice in social and cultural context
Izvleček:
The beginnings of career studies coincide with the development of industrial type of production more than one hundred years ago. Eventually, the career decision has become the subject of interest for the individuals and for the society. In Chapter I, we have presented the transformation of industrial society to information society and further to the contemporary knowledge society. The type of society has affected the view on career. It is significant for industrial society to be organized in a hierarchical and static way. The labour market was predictable with the existence of strong national economies. With the development of transport and information communication technology, the competition intensified, forcing the companies to invest more and more into constant development of their products. The labour market has become unpredictable. The educational level in particular has become one of the more important advantages of an individual to succeed in this type of a market. Recent international data indicate that knowledge based companies, producing services, are among the most successful ones. In this respect, the social scientists perceive contemporary society as knowledge society. The employment statistics in Slovenia indicate the increase of unemployed people with higher and academic education. The share of those with part-time employment has also increased. Although contemporary society bases on knowledge, the educational level does not imply key success factor in career any more. In this relation, we have set the central question within the research of career choice in social and cultural context as follows: Why do certain individuals, all of whom involved in the same educational system, regardless of their achieved educational qualifications, have successful careers (succeeded in using knowledge) and some of them do not. Observing the theoretical overview in the career development field, career choice and career decision-making skill, we have researched how changing social context has affected the view on an individual career in the past one hundred years. We have discovered that the set of knowledge in this field has been upgrading and changing. We have identified two main theoretical discourses, i.e. psychological and sociological theories. The former justify that the career path of individuals is determined by: knowing their traits, abilities and interests; being aware of educational and employment opportunities; having decision-making skill; having skills to transition between educational levels and types, respectively, as well as between education and employment. On the other hand, the sociological theories justify that individual’s social and cultural background implies the type and success of a set of career decisions that result in their career path. Community Interaction Theory combines psychological and sociological approach and researches individual’s career path from both the social and individual aspect. Its main premises are that individuals develop their career interacting with the community around them. Regardless of theoretical discourse, the main difference between past and more recent theoretical discourses shows that the individual career decision has been perceived as a repeating activity being integrated in the individuals’ career paths rather than a single act sealing the future career path. In the chapter on application of theoretical concepts into guidance practices and policies, we have researched how the theory influences the conception of guidance practices, the recent guidance practices in Slovenia and the recent European and national guidance policies. We found that the psychological theories have affected the guidance practices the most. Practices focus on helping individuals to identify the traits, abilities and interests, learn about the available training options, decision-making skill and in transitioning between different levels and types of education. Following the definition of lifelong guidance, the guidance practices, beside helping individuals in decision-making, also focus on helping managing the career. This reflects in career education, namely learning career management skills. The overview of guidance practice in Slovenia shows that the school environment is dominated by those, who are focused on helping individuals in decision-making, especially in choosing their further education. Career education activities have been implemented in Slovene schools as an exception. Strategy papers and documents on education policies in the EU and Slovenia most commonly put forward lifelong learning and the achieved educational level as career success factors. Documents on guidance policies attribute the main impact on the career success in contemporary knowledge society to the learning of career management skills (that enable individuals to make appropriate decisions on their career paths). On the other hand, drawing on the determination of social and cultural backgrounds, which is a characteristic of sociological theories, the latter do not leave a lot of room for guidance practitioner’s intervention. Therefore, we have not detected any significant effect of sociological theories in school guidance practices and in guidance policies. In the field of theoretical debates, we have not detected any significant efforts in searching connections between representatives of the two theoretical discourses. The Community Interaction Theory is the only exception to this. This theory argues that the environment has an impact on the design of individual characteristics, abilities and interests and that it provides a framework in which an individual develops a career. Despite this, the theory is not exact in the interpretation of the mechanisms that allow such an interaction. To understand the career decisions in the social and cultural context it is also crucial to identify these mechanisms. In the empirical part, we have examined the connection of elements that we have identified as key to the individual and to the society. To the individual these elements are in the form of career management skills and to the society, these are social, cultural and economic capital. The research results show that the individual's career path correlates statistically significant and positive with career management skills and economic capital. Among all career management skills, the decision-making skill correlates the least with the adequacy of career path while self-awareness skill correlates the most strongly. In this respect, the adequacy of the career path depends on the following individual skills: the individuals’ knowledge of their abilities and their own restrictions on the way to a career objective; knowledge on effective learning; knowledge on their own interests; perception of work as a virtue; desire to learn new things; belief in the ability to achieve the objective (the indicators of self-awareness skill). Career management skills correlate statistically significant and positive with all three forms of capital. Career management skills correlate the most strongly with economic capital, whereas the least with social capital. Among the various indicators of economic capital, the career management skills correlate the most strongly with the satisfaction of the personal financial situation, but the least with the number of technical goods. Among all career management skills, the economic and cultural capital correlate the most strongly with the self-awareness skill, but the least with decision-making skill. The correlation between career management skills and the social capital is just the opposite. Social capital correlates the most strongly with the decision-making skill, but the least with self-awareness skill. An individual's level of education as a category of cultural capital was considered separately in search of an answer to the key question raised at the beginning: Why do certain individuals, all of whom involved in the same educational system, regardless of their achieved educational qualifications, have successful careers (succeeded in using knowledge) and some of them do not? The research confirms that, amongst all indicators of cultural capital, the achieved educational qualification correlates the most strongly with the adequacy of an individual's career path. The research also confirms that the achieved educational qualifications correlate statistically significant with career management skills. However, the correlation is weaker between career management skills and the achieved educational qualifications than between career management skills and reading literacy and participation in cultural events. Research also shows that the achieved educational qualifications correlate the most strongly with the transition skill (knowledge of the essence of job interview, knowledge of writing job applications, applications for enrolment in education, focus on career goal). On the other hand, there is no statistically significant correlation between the achieved educational qualifications and decision-making skill. Likewise, the research shows that the differences between the employed and unemployed in relation to the achieved educational level are not statistically significant. There are also no statistically significant differences between the employed and unemployed in cultural capital, social capital, opportunity awareness skill and decision-making skill. However, there are statistically significant differences between unemployed and employed in the following variables (in order from most to least important): career path, the economic capital, transition skills, self-awareness skill, and career management skills. We have explained the origin of the differences between the unemployed and employed in relation to the economic capital by the fact that unemployed status itself relates just to the economic capital. In regards to other elements, we have found that the level of educational attainment does not reflect the adequacy of career path and the development of career management skills, especially transition skills and self-awareness skill. As the research has confirmed, they are essential elements of the employability success. The empirical part thus confirms the connection of elements that we have identified as key to the individual and to the society. In this respect, we have contributed to the exactness of the theoretical concept on community interaction, i.e. we have identified a possible mechanism that allows the interpretation of this interaction. In accordance with the findings, we suggest further research questions as follows: what is the impact of different cultures (language, economic minorities) to develop self-awareness skill; how can schools train individuals for career management skills within existing educational programs (courses, mandatory and optional programs, respectively); what can society do to maximize the economic, social and cultural capital in terms of the development of career management skills, particularly in terms of self-awareness skill and transition skills.

Ključne besede:career management skills

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