Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder characterised by altered behaviour in the quality of social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and imagination and by repetitive or unusual behaviours. Objective: By means of a thorough review of the latest literature, the purpose of the thesis is to establish whether oxytocin use during labour is associated with autism incidence. Methods: A descriptive research method was used. The author examined and studied scientific and professional literature in the field of autism and perinatal risk factors for autistic spectrum disorder incidence. The thesis specifically focused on induction and augmentation of labour with oxytocin and its effect on autistic disorders. The literature was accessed through databases (COBISS, PubMed, DiKUL and Google Scholar). Results: With autistic babies, more frequent complications during pregnancy, labour and immediately after birth were reported. It led to an assumption that pregnancy, labour and complications following birth may increase the risk of autism incidence. In recent years, considerable attention has been devoted to a possible association of synthetic oxytocin use during labour with ASD. The latest research paper in the field of possible association between oxytocin use during labour and ASD was published in 2016. Swedish researchers found a weak association between labour induction and ASD (OR 1,19; 95 % CI 1,13-1,24). The sample size allowed for a comparison among siblings with a different onset of labour. The analysis of those siblings did not show a statistically relevant association between labour induction and ASD (OR 0,99; 95 % CI 0,88-1,10). Discussion and conclusion: To date published research has not shown a clinically significant association between oxytocin use to induce or augment labour and ASD.