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Dejavniki rabe drog in odvisnosti od drog pri osebah s posebnimi potrebami
Kralj, Mojca (Avtor), Sande, Matej (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu, Lipec Stopar, Mojca (Komentor)

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/3959/ Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Izvleček
Pri osebah s posebnimi potrebami na uporabo drog vplivajo številni prepleteni dejavniki, ki so razmeroma slabo raziskani. Vemo, da škodljiva uporaba in odvisnost od dovoljenih ter nedovoljenih drog povzročata slabšo kakovost življenja z večplastnimi telesnimi in duševnimi težavami posameznika ter tudi z vplivom na družinsko in socialno življenje posameznikov. Zato je pomembno, da pri osebah s posebnimi potrebami dejavnike tveganja, ki napovedujejo možnost škodljive uporabe drog, prepoznamo zgodaj, saj lahko tako preprečimo morebitne zdravstvene in socialne zaplete. Proučevanje uporabe drog in ugotavljanje dejavnikov tveganja ter varovalnih dejavnikov med osebami s posebnimi potrebami nam je v pomoč pri oblikovanju preventivnih programov in programov pomoči za njih. Namen raziskave je bil spoznati varovalne dejavnike in dejavnike tveganja, ki povečujejo možnost za škodljivo uporabo drog pri osebah s posebnimi potrebami. V raziskovanju smo se usmerili na vprašanja o razširjenosti in pogostosti uporabe drog, odnosu in stališčih do drog, poznavanju drog, dostopnosti drog, uporabi drog pri prijateljih in povezanosti osebnih dejavnikov, dejavnikih družine, šole in soseščine z uporabo drog. Izhajali smo iz že preverjenih metodologij raziskovanja uporabe drog (ESPAD metodologije ugotavljanja razširjenosti uporabe drog ter dejavnikov uporabe drog, AUDIT presejalnega vprašalnika ugotavljanja tveganja uporabe alkohola, MSS instrumenta za ugotavljanje profila dejavnikov tveganja in varovalnih dejavnikov), ki smo jih prilagodili raziskovanju izbrane populacije oseb s posebnimi potrebami. V raziskavo smo zajeli 476 oseb s posebnimi potrebami, starih 15 let in več, katere smo glede na zahteve metodologije razdelili v dva vzorca, reprezentativni vzorec in nereprezentativni vzorec. Reprezentativni vzorec je zajemal 234 oseb z dolgotrajno boleznijo in gibalno oviranostjo. Nereprezentativni vzorec je zajemal 242 oseb, ki so slepe in slabovidne, osebe, ki so gluhe in naglušne, ter osebe z gibalno oviranostjo. Oba vzorca smo opazovali po enotnem vprašalniku s spremenljivkami, ki se nanašajo na pogostost uporabe drog, varovalne dejavnike in dejavnike tveganja. Uporabljene so bile kvantitativne statistične metode, deskriptivne in korelacijske ter multivariatne analize. Raziskava je pokazala, da je med izbranimi osebami s posebnimi potrebami najpogosteje uporabljena droga alkohol, sledijo pa tobak, marihuana, protibolečinska zdravila in pomirjevala. Posamezniki se odločajo za uporabo drog iz osebnih in družbenih motivov. Osebni motivi uporabe drog so povezani z zmanjševanjem napetosti in notranjih konfliktov, družbeni motivi pa z lažjim vključevanjem v družbo. Potrdili smo latentne strukture, ki kažejo na dejavnike tveganja in varovalne dejavnike pred uporabo drog. Dejavniki tveganja so povezani s telesno samopodobo, z zmanjševanjem stisk zaradi posebnih potreb in vključevanjem v družbo, varovalni dejavniki pa so povezani z občutkom lastne vrednosti in dobrimi družinskimi odnosi. Izsledki raziskave so osvetlili problem škodljive uporabe in odvisnosti od drog pri osebah s posebnimi potrebami, ki je v svetovnem prostoru slabo raziskan. Prikazani so tisti dejavniki tveganja in varovalni dejavniki, ki so nam v pomoč pri oblikovanju smernic za preventivno delo na področju drog. Preventivne intervencije naj bodo naravnane na razvijanje življenjskih spretnosti in opolnomočenja življenja posameznika s posebnimi potrebami.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:dejavniki tveganja
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorska disertacija (m)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2016
COBISS.SI-ID:11250761 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:529
Število prenosov:141
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Factors of drug use and drug depenence among person with special needs
Izvleček:
Drug use among persons with special needs is affected by many interacting factors that are relatively poorly researched. It is known that the abuse and dependence on licit and illicit drugs lead to lower quality of life with complex physical and mental health problems of the individual and have consequences for the family and the society. Therefore, it is important to identify early risk factors in individuals with special needs, which predict the possibility of harmful drug use, and thus prevent medical and social complications. Research of drug use and identifying risk factors and protective factors among persons with special needs are helpful in designing prevention programs and assistance programs for people with disabilities. The purpose of the study was to identify protective factors and risk factors that increase the potential for harmful drug use in people with special needs. In the survey, we focused on the issues of the prevalence and frequency of drug use, attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about drugs, access to drugs, use of drugs at friends’ homes and the connection of family, school and neighbourhood with the drug use. We used validated research methodologies about the frequency of drug use (ESPAD methodology of determining the prevalence and frequency of drug use and drug use factors, AUDIT screening questionnaire identifying risky alcohol use, MSS instrument for determining the profile of risk factors and protective factors), which were adjusted to the research of the selected population of persons with disabilities. The research included 476 people with disabilities aged 15 years and older, who were divided according to the requirements of the methodology into two samples, a representative sample and an unrepresentative sample. The representative sample included 234 people with long-term illnesses and people who are physically impaired. The unrepresentative sample consisted of 242 individuals who are blind, visually impaired, hearing impaired or physically impaired. The two samples were observed after a unified questionnaire with variables relating to the frequency of use and harmful use of drugs, the degree of risky alcohol use, drug use motives, scale positions attitudes towards drugs, drug accessibility and variables of risk factors and protective factors. We used quantitative statistical methods, and descriptive and multivariate analysis. The survey showed that the most commonly used drugs are alcohol and tobacco, followed by marijuana, painkillers and sedatives, which were not prescribed by a doctor. People use drugs for personal and social motives. Personal motives of use drug are associated with the reduction of tensions and internal conflicts. Social motives ofl use drug are associated with increase of relaxed social integration. With the help of the factor structure we confirmed factor variables that indicate the risk factors and the protective factors. We have found risk factors of drug use in groups of persons with special needs that are associated with body image, reducing distress due to the specific needs and integration into the society. The results of the survey highlighted the problem of harmful use and addiction in people with special needs, which is poorly researched worldwide. We have shown only those risk factors and protective factors that help us to establish guidelines and recommendations for preventive work in the field of drugs. Preventive interventions should be focused on developing life skills and empowerment of life of people with special needs.

Ključne besede:risk factors

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