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Razlike v ravnotežju predšolskih otrok starih 1 in 3 leta : diplomsko delo
Petrič, Melita (Author), Gregorc, Jera (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/id/eprint/3943 This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Predšolsko obdobje je čas temeljnega gibalnega razvoja, to pomeni, da se v tem obdobju postavijo osnove za kasnejša specializirana gibanja. Hkrati je v tem času otrok najbolj dovzeten za različne vplive iz okolja, ki pa, poleg na gibalno, vplivajo na vsa področja otrokovega razvoja, zato govorimo o celostnem razvoju. Ta vzgojitelju predstavlja nujnost celostnega načrtovanja, hkrati pa mu je izziv pri ugotavljanju posameznih vplivov. Celostnost razvoja se pojavlja tudi znotraj področij. Vse to prepletanje raziskovalcu narekuje previdnost pri posploševanju posameznih vplivov, določanju stopenj, postavljanju minimalnih standardov ipd. Raziskovalci so ugotovili, da je tudi struktura gibalnih sposobnosti predšolskega otroka specifična in se razlikuje od odraslih ljudi. Iste gibalne naloge, ki pri odraslem človeku merijo npr. koordinacijo, v najzgodnejšem obdobju merijo npr. ravnotežje. Izbira pravih nalog je zato ključna. Raziskovalci pa poudarjajo, da je ključna gibalna sposobnost ravnotežje, saj predstavlja sito za vsa nadaljnja gibanja. V diplomskem delu smo preučevali razlike v ravnotežju predšolskih otrok. Namen dela je bil ugotoviti, v čem se razlikuje izvedba ravnotežnih nalog med otroki, starimi eno in tri leta. V vzorec smo zajeli 60 otrok, vključenih v Vrtec Vrhnika. Od tega je bilo 30 otrok starih eno leto in 30 starih tri leta. V povezavi s hipotezami smo določili pet ravnotežnih nalog, ki smo jih oblikovali na podlagi literature in so primerne za predšolske otroke. Ugotavljali smo, ali pri ravnotežnih nalogah obstajajo statistično značilne razlike med otroki glede na starost. Podatke smo pridobili s pomočjo eksperimenta in jih analizirali s statističnim programom SPSS ter jih predstavili s pomočjo preglednic in interpretacije le-teh. Prvo hipotezo, vztrajanje v ravnotežnostnem položaju v vožnji s poganjalcem na dveh kolesih mlajših otrok se od starejših razlikuje v času zadrževanja tega položaja, smo potrdili. Ugotovili smo namreč, da se enoletni otroci še niso zmožni voziti s poganjalcem. Tudi drugo hipotezo, s katero smo ugotavljali razlike v času pri stoji na eni nogi, smo potrdili. Ugotovili smo, da enoletni otroci ne zadržijo noge v zraku niti pol sekunde, triletni otroci pa zadržijo nogo v povprečju 3,4 sekunde. Tretja hipoteza je bila izpeljana iz testa hoje po različno velikih podlagah, ki so bile enako oddaljene. Predpostavljali smo, da mlajši otroci počasneje prehodijo označeno pot. Hipotezo smo zavrnili, saj se hoja po različno velikih podlagah, vendar enako oddaljenih, med mlajšimi in starejšimi otroki ni bistveno razlikovala. Četrto hipotezo, padci oziroma seskoki mlajših otrok se od starejših razlikujejo glede na način doskoka, smo potrdili, saj smo s preizkusom hi-kvadrat ugotovili, da se padci oziroma seskoki mlajših otrok od starejših statistično značilno razlikujejo v načinu doskoka. Tudi zadnjo, peto hipotezo, vrtenje mlajših otrok se od starejših razlikuje v številu obratov, smo potrdili, saj se vrtenje mlajših otrok od starejših statistično značilno razlikuje v številu obratov. Ugotovili smo, da merskih instrumentov za ravnotežje v predšolskem obdobju ne moremo nekritično prenašati znotraj različnih starostnih skupin. Poleg tega smo opazili, da rezultati pri tistih merskih instrumentih, ki jih lahko vzamemo tako za enoletnike kot triletnike, kažejo statistično značilne razlike med skupinama. V predšolskem obdobju so razlike med otroki tako velike, da je za načrtovanje in izvajanje gibalnih dejavnosti v starostnem obdobju od prvega do tretjega leta nujno izbrati drugačne metode dela.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:ravnotežje, gibalne sposobnosti
Work type:Undergraduate thesis (m5)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2016
Publisher:[M. Petrič]
Number of pages:XIII, 44 str.
UDC:373.2.016:796.012.266(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11245129 Link is opened in a new window
Views:485
Downloads:96
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Differences in balance in preschool children aged 1 and 3 years
Abstract:
The main part of motor development happens in the preschool period. This means that this period provides the foundation for specialised movement later in life. However, children at that age are the most susceptible to various influences from the environment, which affect motor as well as other areas of development, hence the expression comprehensive development of the child. From the teacher's perspective, comprehensive development means comprehensive planning and a challenge of determining individual effects. But comprehensive development is also part of individual areas, meaning that such interconnectedness requires prudence when generalising individual influences, determining levels, setting minimal standards etc. Different researchers found that the structure of motor abilities in preschool children is specific and quite different from that of adults. The same motor task that is used to measure coordination in adults is used to measure balance in early childhood. The selection of the right tasks is thus key. According to researchers, the main motor ability is balance because it is a precondition for any type of further movement. The thesis explores the differences in balance in preschool children. The goal was to determine the differences in the way children aged 1 and 3 years perform balance tasks. The sample involved 60 children attending the Vrhnika Kindergarten; 30 of them were aged 1 year and 30 were aged 3 years. Taking the hypotheses as guidelines, we devised five balance tasks for preschool children on the basis of relevant literature. We explored whether there are any statistically significant differences between the two groups of children performing the tasks. The data was obtained through the experiment, analysed using the SPSS statistical software, presented with tables and interpreted. The first hypothesis was connected to the difference in the ability to stay balanced while driving a push-bike between older and younger children. The hypothesis was confirmed because children aged 1 are unable to drive a push-bike. The second hypothesis, which revolved around the difference in the time of one-legged standing position, was also confirmed. Children aged 1 cannot lift a leg and hold it for even half a second, while 3-year-olds can hold one leg up for an average of 3.4 seconds. The third hypothesis was developed from a walk test on surfaces of different sizes and set at equal distances. We assumed that it would take younger children longer to walk the marked path. The hypothesis was rejected because there were no significant differences between the two age groups. As for the fourth hypothesis, it stated that the way younger children land is different. The chi-squared test was performed to find a statistically significant difference between the way younger and older children land on the floor. The final hypothesis stated that younger children are able to perform less turns while spinning than older children. The number of turns performed by the children from both groups was statistically different. The findings show that balance-measuring instruments in the preschool period cannot be uncritically transposed from one age group to another. In addition, the results from the measuring instruments that can be used in both age groups show statistically significant differences between them. The differences between preschool children aged 1 and 3 years are so dramatic that different methods of work must be followed while planning and conducting motor activities.

Keywords:pre-school child, motor development, predšolski otrok, gibalni razvoj

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