The article compares two different uses of the concept of "pure Hawaiian blood" in contemporary Hawaiian society: one based on the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act and practiced by the contemporary Hawaiian state; and the second one practiced by the Hawaiian native population not only in contemporary Hawaiian society, but also among various groups of Hawaiian native population in the USA. I will demonstrate that these two uses of the same concept are connected with two different, incompatible social and political practices. The first is a practice of segregation and assimilation, implemented by the Hawaiian state. The second practice is one of revitalization and emancipation, which is observed by Hawaiian natives. In this study I will use data collected during my field work on Hawaiʼi (January 2003-December 2003).