The elemental composition of cereal and pseudocereal grain is believed to significantly affect the portions of the minerals supplied for particular human populations. Therefore, care needs to be taken to improve the availability of the essential elements and to decrease unwanted metal accumulation in edible plant parts. In the present study, we have investigated the element accumulation in the grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn.), harvested from the same field under conventional grain production. Soil and grain element compositions were analysed using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The wheat grain shows significantly higher (p<0.05) higher element concentrations than both of the buckwheat species tested. The contents of elements in 100 g grain were higher than the concentrations listed in the literature for wheat and buckwheat flours, which indicates significant losses of elements during milling and polishing. Concerns are raised due to the high and unwanted metal accumulation in wheat and buckwheat. The data indicate that both of these buckwheat
species accumulate less metal contaminants when compared to wheat.