We present the structure, properties and use of European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) wood, which is known for its uncoloured heartwood, medium density,relatively good mechanical properties and the fact that it can be used for a great variety of products. The value and usefulness of fir wood are reduced due to low resistance against decay and deterioration, and frequent occurrence of wet heart, and ring shakes. The properties of fir wood are comparable to those of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). Fir is favoured where resin is not desired, where durability against acids and bases is important, and for water constructions. We present some examples of wooden constructions in archaeological or historical objects in Slovenia. The dendrochronologically dated wood was up to 500 years old. In the past centuries, fir was used more frequently than Norway spruce. On the cellular level, the wood of fir consists of tracheids and parenchyma cells. In Slovenia, several studies of wood formation have been conducted e in recent years, which are important for a better understanding of the physiology of trees and quality of wood as material. Secondary phloem, which is particularly important for the survival of trees, has been studied as well. We review some main results of such studies.