The existing views on sustainability are presented in the introduction of this PhD dissertation. Owing to the vague definitions of sustainability and sustainable development, we almost cannot trace the dimensions of sustainability in the regional and local programmes that we analysed. Among the dimensions of sustainability we exposed the importance of ecosystem approach, integrity, well-being, self-sufficiency and public active participation. Using qualitative analyses and partly quantitative estimations, we prepared the criteria for evaluation of regional and local developent programmes from the aspect of sustainability models. Those models present the status of sustainability achieved in the selected municipal and regional development programmes (from very weak to weak and strong sustainability). We then used the methods of evaluating the influence of measures on sustainability (method of four capitals and method of sustainability flower). With the help of those methods we evaluated the importance of connection among natural, social, human and economical capitals (or systems) in order to achieve sustainability. One-way, sector-based methods do not lead to long-term perspectives, since they do not enable the connections among the activities that are specific locally. They are also called secondary or tertiary activities since they are usually of marginal importance to the state. Those connections should arise from the measures taken in development programmes and should be based on local and regional specifics. Here, the awareness of the fact that only cross-section of development programmes ensures sustainability, is essential. The establishment of multi-layer sustainability is a process that needs to be created constantly. The foundation of sustainability is in the consideration of ecosystem, social, regional and local situation, where a key role is played by the available local and regional resources, especially human resources - people. In times of changed global environmental situation we need to establish an effective protection system for natural resources on local and regional level, for example, with ecoremediations. We need to adjust to climate change, which is also the influence of interfering with ecosystem endurance of our planet, on all fields; from traffic and farming to the use of energy and the multi-purpose use of water bodies. Here, education plays a crucial role since it can contribute to the lowering of environmental impact by establishing the system of values. We suggest for sustainability based local (municipal) and regional agendas to pay more attention to ecosystem content, to their connection on the level of actual measures and to active public paricipation. Ecosystem based approaches, which will connect local-regional specifics and consider public interest, tradition and knowledge, will enable the design of integrated development strategies. Those strategies will be based on our responsibility for nature and people. Only such process of establishing sustainable regions can develop a favourable environment for well-being of people.