In this thesis the connection between population dynamics and forest conditions is presented. The main objective was to find out in what way the population dynamics effects the forest. This connection is represented in three parts of the thesis: a) on a global level (around the world), b) on a state level (in Slovenia), c) on a local level (community Cerkno). The research was focused on differences in forest management between developed anddeveloping countries. It is shown that forest conditions significantly depend on development of country and growth of population. On the local level considering the use of forest functions and resources the differences between urban and rural population are found out. The thesis is designed for public, young people, ecologists and people employed in forest sector. The main finding is that forest is significantly more preserved in developed countries with lower or negative population growth than in developing countries where population is constantly increasing. On the level of Slovenia suitable definition of forest functions in urban and rural area is very important, because differences between both types of areas are remarkable.