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Termovizija kasaških konj po ogrevanju
ID PAPUGA, IRINEJ (Avtor), ID Pušnik, Igor (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu, ID Kramarič, Petra (Komentor)

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Izvleček
Termovizija je od svojih začetkov v drugi polovici 20. stoletja dosegla veliko število različnih področij uporabe. Predstavlja način brezkontaktnega merjenja temperature, pri čemer s termovizijsko kamero pretvorimo toplotno sevanje teles v termografsko sliko. Ta nam omogoča tako kvalitativno kot kvantitativno oceno opazovanega fizikalnega pojava. V magistrskem delu raziskujem uporabnost termovizije na področju ogrevanja dirkalnih konj kasačev. Glavni namen je ugotoviti notranjo telesno temperaturo in temperaturo površine kože, ki jo konj doseže med standardnim ogrevanjem in hitrim treningom. Meritve sem opravil na devetih konjih kasačih, meril sem 6 različnih področij zanimanja, ki so bila določena glede na mišične skupine, ki se nahajajo pod kožo. Spremljal sem tudi dinamiko ohlajanja področij po naporu in temperaturne razlike med posameznimi področji zanimanja. Opravljene so bile tudi meritve rektalne temperature, srčnega utripa in frekvence dihanja. Konjem smo odvzeli kri pred standardnim ogrevanjem in po hitrem treningu ter opravili analize krvne slike in biokemijskih parametrov. Za zajem termogramov smo uporabili tri termovizijske kamere različnih cenovnih razredov, da bi ugotovili, kako so rezultati meritev odvisni od kakovosti termovizijske kamere. Termograme smo zajeli s kamerami FLIR T1020, FLIR T650sc in Fluke TiS45 z različnih zornih kotov tako, da smo zajeli vsa področja zanimanja. Med meritvami smo spremljali okoljske parametre, kot so: temperatura zraka, zračni tlak, hitrost vetra in relativna vlažnost. Te vrednosti sem kasneje uporabil pri analizi termogramov. Termograme kamer FLIR sem analiziral s programom FLIR ResearchIR, termograme kamere Fluke TiS45 pa s programom Fluke Connect. Pri analizi so nas zanimali povprečje temperatur, standardna deviacija pikslov in največja temperatura znotraj področja zanimanja. Podatke sem nato analiziral in primerjal razlike med termogrami posameznih kamer in rektalno temperaturo. Največje razlike sem izmeril pri kameri Fluke, ki spada v nizek cenovni razred. Sledila je kamera FLIR T650sc, najmanjše razlike pa so bile pri kameri FLIR T1020, ki je izmed treh najdražja in po specifikacijah tudi najboljša. Opravil sem tudi statistično analizo standardne deviacije temperature pikslov za vsa področja zanimanja. Pri termogramih notranjega očesnega kota je zaradi majhne površine področja raztros najmanjši v primerjavi z drugimi področji zanimanja, zato je to zanimivo področje za nadaljnje raziskave. Analizo korelacijskih koeficientov sem izvedel za vsakega konja ločeno, saj edino tako obravnavam biološko variabilnost v populaciji konjev. Iskal sem povezave med področji zanimanja in pulzom ter rektalno temperaturo. Zaradi nemonotonosti podatkov sem uporabil Spearmannov korelacijski koeficient in pripadajoč p-test. Osamelci pa so bili pozneje odstranjeni z Grubsovim testom. Našel sem tri področja zanimanja z zelo visoko korelacijo (0,80–1,00), ki so se nahajala na trupu konja. To so bila področja, ki so se tudi ogrevala in ohlajala z največjo dinamiko. Najmočnejšo korelacijo z rektalno temperaturo ima sprednji del trupa. To področje je bilo tudi pogosto možno s prostim očesom ločiti od ozadja. Za vsa tri področja zanimanja sem uporabil razlike med področji in rektalno temperaturo, da bi določil enačbo, s katero je možno s pomočjo meritev termovizijske kamere izračunati približek rektalne temperature. Podatke krvne slike in biokemije sem uporabil, da bi določil, kateri laboratorijski parametri se signifikantno spremenijo po fizičnem naporu. Signifikantno povišani (p < 0,05) so bili eritrociti, hematokrit, hemoglobin, levkociti in segmentni levkociti. Eozinofilci in limfociti pa so bili po hitrem treningu signifikantno nižji (p < 0,05). Pri biokemijskih parametrih sta bila povišana mišični encim kreatin kinaza (p = 0,004) in koncentracija natrija (p = 0,004), zmanjšala pa se je koncentracija kalija (p = 0,038). Rezultati potrjujejo, da obstajajo povezave med površinsko temperaturo kože in kliničnimi parametri. V praksi se pri oceni fiziologije konja danes najpogosteje uporabljajo frekvenca dihanja, srčni utrip in rektalna temperatura. S temi parametri lahko uporabniki ocenijo, v kakšni kondiciji je konj in ali mu grozi pregretje (hipertermija). Termovizija se že uporablja na veterinarskem področju predvsem pri zgodnjem zaznavanju bolezenskih stanj ali poškodb, še preden se pojavijo klinični simptomi. Z nadaljnjimi raziskavami bi lahko podrobneje opazovali področja zanimanja, ki so se izkazala kot statistično signifikantna. Ta so: področje trupa med vratom in sprednjimi nogami, sprednji nogi ter zadnji del trupa nad kolki. Na večji populaciji konjev in z bolj specifičnim merilnim protokolom bi lahko jasneje določili merilni protokol, ki bi bil uporaben pri spremljanju ogrevanja konjev kasačev.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:termovizija, termogram, področje zanimanja, konji kasači, ogrevanje konj
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Organizacija:FE - Fakulteta za elektrotehniko
Leto izida:2023
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-143961 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
COBISS.SI-ID:139185155 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Datum objave v RUL:24.01.2023
Število ogledov:38
Število prenosov:9
Metapodatki:XML RDF-CHPDL DC-XML DC-RDF
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Thermal imaging of trotting horses after warming
Izvleček:
Since its beginnings in the second half of the 20th century, thermal imaging has reached a wide variety of applications. It is a non-contact way of measuring temperature, where a thermal imaging camera converts the thermal radiation of bodies into a thermographic image. This allows us to make both a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the observed physical phenomenon. In this master's degree thesis, I investigate the applicability of thermal imaging for evaluation of racehorse performance. The main purpose is to determine the core body temperature and skin surface temperature reached by the horse during standard warm-up procedure and during race. I took measurements on nine trotter horses, measuring 6 different regions of interest, which were defined according to the muscle groups located under the skin. I also monitored the temperature dynamics of the regions after exertion and the temperature differences between each region of interest. Measurements of rectal temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate were also taken. Horses blood was sampled before standard warm-up procedure and after simulated race. From this samples hematological and biochemical parameters were determined. Three thermal imaging cameras of different price ranges were used to capture the thermograms to see how are results dependent on the quality of the thermal imaging camera. Thermograms were captured with FLIR T1020, FLIR T650sc and Fluke TiS45 cameras from different angles to cover all regions of interest. During the measurements, we monitored environmental parameters such as air temperature, air pressure, wind speed and relative humidity. These values were later used to analyse the thermograms correctly. FLIR camera thermograms were analysed with program FLIR ResearchIR, while Fluke TiS45 camera thermograms were analysed with Fluke Connect software. For the analysis, we observed mean value of temperatures, standard deviation of pixels and maximum temperature within individual regions of interest. Data was then analysed and differences between the individual camera and rectal temperature were compared. Thermograms with biggest measured differences were taken with the Fluke camera, which is in the low price range. While thermograms with the smallest differences were taken with the FLIR T1020, which is the most expensive camera and with the best specifications, in our study. I also performed a statistical analysis of the standard deviation of pixel temperatures for all regions of interest. Due to the small surface area of eye region, we get minimal standard deviations compared to other regions of interest, making the eye region an interesting area for further research. I performed the correlation analysis for each horse separately, as a way to address the biological variability in population. I was looking for correlations between regions of interest and pulse, and rectal temperature. Since all data is not monotonous, I used Spearman's correlation coefficient and the corresponding p-test. After p-values we determines, outliers were subsequently removed using the Grubbs test. Three regions of interest had a very high correlation (0.80 - 1.00), of which all were located on the horse's torso. These were also the regions which had higher surface temperature dynamic. The anterior part of the torso has the strongest correlation with rectal temperature. This region could often be distinguished from the background even with the naked eye. For all three regions of interest, I used the differences between the regions and the rectal temperature to determine an equation, that can be used to calculate and approximation of the rectal temperature, from measurements made with thermal imaging camera. I used blood count and biochemistry data to determine which laboratory parameters change significantly after physical exertion. Erythrocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, leucocytes and segmental leucocytes were significantly elevated (p < 0.05). Eosinophils and lymphocytes were significantly lower after fast training (p < 0.05). For biochemical parameters, muscle enzyme creatine kinase (p = 0.004) and sodium (p = 0.004) concentrations were elevated, while potassium (p = 0.038) was decreased. The results confirm that there are correlations between skin surface temperature and clinical parameters. In practice, respiratory rate, heart rate and rectal temperature are the most commonly used parameters to assess the physiology of the horse. These parameters allow trainers to assess the fitness of the horse and whether it is at risk of hyperthermia. Thermal imaging is already used in the veterinary field, especially for early detection of diseases or injuries, before clinical symptoms appear. Further research could look in more detail at the regions of interest that were found statistically significant. With a larger population of horses and a more specific measurement protocol, a clearer measurement protocol could be defined that would be useful for monitoring the warm-up procedure of trotter horses.

Ključne besede:thermovision, thermal image, region of interest, trotter, warm-up

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