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Poučevanje učnih vsebin voda, pretakanje ter sile in gibanje na prostem pri predmetu naravoslovje in tehnika v 4. razredu osnovne šole
ID Češek Grmek, Tina (Avtor), ID Pavlin, Jerneja (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

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Izvleček
Vsak učitelj je pri organizaciji pouka v veliki meri avtonomen. Čeprav so možnosti za izvedbo pouka neštete, še vedno prevladujeta individualna učna oblika in frontalna razlaga, kar pogosto pojmujemo kot tradicionalni pouk. Če smo s takim poukom morda pred desetletji lahko razvijali spretnosti, potrebne za življenje, danes ni več tako. V današnjem času so cenjene ideje, zamisli, različne zmožnosti in spretnosti ter drugačni, divergentni načini razmišljanja. Za doseganje takih ciljev je potreben tudi celovit učni pristop. Eden izmed možnih pristopov je pouk na prostem, ki učencem zagotavlja aktivno udejstvovanje, preizkušanje in konkreten stik z materiali ter sodelovalno učenje v skupinah. Z raziskavo v okviru magistrskega dela smo želeli učencem izbranega razreda zagotoviti izkušenjsko in aktivno učenje z uporabo pripomočkov in materialov v šolski okolici. Zanimalo nas je, katere napačne predstave o vodi, pretakanju ter silah in gibanju so prisotne pri učencih izbranega razreda. Želeli smo izvedeti tudi, kako priljubljena sta predmeta naravoslovje (v nadaljevanju NIT) in tehnika ter šport (v nadaljevanju ŠPO), pa tudi kako všeč jim je izvedba pouka na prostem. Po izvedbi učnih ur smo želeli raziskati, kakšen je napredek v znanju pri posameznih učencih in ali je napredek enak tudi po enem mesecu od izvedbe. Zanimalo nas je tudi, ali se pojavljajo razlike v predznanju, napredku v znanju in trajnejši zapomnitvi med učenci različnih skupin, ki smo jih oblikovali glede na spol, priljubljenosti predmetov NIT in ŠPO ter njihovega odnosa do pouka na prostem pri učencih izbranega razreda. Z informacijami, pridobljeni z intervjuji posameznih učencev, smo želeli dobiti tudi boljši vpogled v njihov odnos do predmetov NIT in ŠPO ter pouka na prostem, hkrati pa raziskati tudi njihove učne navade in njihov pogled na lastno znanje. V šolskem letu 2021/22 smo 23 učencem izbranega četrtega razreda omogočili izkušnjo pouka na prostem. Vsa srečanja so bila izvedena na prostem v okolici šole. Na vsakem srečanju je bilo delo organizirano v skupinah, vsak posameznik je imel svojo zadolžitev. Prvo srečanje je bilo namenjeno raziskovanju sil in gibanja, drugo vode in tretje pretakanju. Pred srečanji so učenci rešili predtest, s katerim smo preverili njihovo predznanje. Potest so učenci rešili po vsakem srečanju in po enem mesecu od izvedbe. Z g-faktorjem smo ovrednotili napredek in trajnost njihovega znanja. S tremi učenci smo izvedli tudi intervju z namenom pridobitve poglobljenega vpogleda v njihov odnos do učnih predmetov, način in oblike poučevanja ter pouka na prostem. Tudi vsi ostali učenci so izpolnili vprašalnike, v katerih so ocenili njihov odnos do pouka na prostem, gibanja oz. ŠPO ter NIT. Učence smo na podlagi njihovih odgovorov razdelili v skupine. Rezultate učencev različnih skupin smo nato primerjali med seboj, ker smo želeli izvedeti, ali se med učenci pojavljajo razlike v njihovem predznanju, napredku v znanju in zmožnosti trajnejše zapomnitve. Rezultati magistrskega dela so pokazali, da je učencem pouk na prostem všeč. Po izvedbi se počutijo bolje, hkrati pa menijo, da tak način izvedbe vpliva na njihovo boljšo in trajnejšo zapomnitev. Tudi izračuni g-faktorja so pokazali, da učenci, ne glede na njihov spol ali odnos do ŠPO, NIT ali pouka na prostem, pri vseh učnih vsebinah povprečno dosegajo srednji oziroma visok napredek v znanju. V znanju po enem mesecu od izvedbe sicer nazadujejo, a še vedno dosegajo srednji napredek glede na njihovo predznanje. Analiza odgovorov na vprašanja je pokazala, da je večina učencev uspešno odpravila svoje napačne predstave in s tem potrdila, da je pouk na prostem učinkovit učni pristop za odpravljanje napačnih predstav.V danem magistrskem delu so predstavljene in z rezultati podkrepljene prednosti pouka na prostem. Zapisane so konkretne učne priprave in opisane ostale možnosti za izvedbo pouka na prostem. Ostalim učiteljem nudijo zgled, kako lahko samostojno oblikujejo in izvedejo pouk na prostem, ki ni nujno povezan s predstavljenimi učnimi vsebinami. Učiteljem razrednega pouka in drugim pedagoškim delavcem izsledki raziskave nudijo vpogled v odzive učencev, njihov napredek v znanju ter možnosti preoblikovanja napačnih predstav o vodi, pretakanju ter silah in gibanju pri izvedbi pouka na prostem.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:pouk na prostem
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2022
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-135673 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
COBISS.SI-ID:102079491 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Datum objave v RUL:04.04.2022
Število ogledov:122
Število prenosov:20
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Teaching the concepts of water, pouring, forces and motion outdoors in the science and technology subject in the fourth grade
Izvleček:
In planning their lessons, all teachers have a considerable measure of autonomy. Although there are countless ways in which lessons can be delivered, the predominant teaching approaches are still individual teaching and teacher-centred delivery, which is often referred to as traditional instruction. While decades ago we may still have been able to develop life skills through such instruction, today that is no longer the case. Nowadays, what is valued are ideas, concepts, different abilities and skills, and alternative, divergent ways of thinking. Achieving these objectives, however, also requires a comprehensive learning approach. One possible approach is outdoor learning, which encourages learners to actively engage, experiment and interact with materials in a hands-on experience, as well as collaborative learning in groups. The research for this Master's thesis aimed to provide an experiential and participatory learning experience for pupils in a selected class, using equipment and resources in the school environment. Our main focus was to identify the misconceptions that learners in our selected class had about water, flow, forces and motion. Another question we sought to answer was how popular the subjects of science and technology and physical education were among the learners, as well as how fond they were of outdoor learning. After the lessons, we investigated the progress in individual learners' knowledge and whether the progress remained consistent a month following the lessons. We also investigated whether there were differences in background knowledge, knowledge progression and long-term retention between the different groups of learners, which were formed based on gender, learners' attitude towards the subjects of science and technology and physical education, as well as the attitudes towards outdoor learning among the learners in the selected class. The information obtained through interviews with individual students was also used to gain a better insight into their attitudes towards the subjects of science and technology and physical education and outdoor learning, while also exploring their study habits and their perceptions of their own knowledge. In the school year 2021/22, 23 selected 4th grade pupils were given the opportunity to experience outdoor learning. All the sessions were held outdoors in the school surroundings. In each session, the work was organised in groups, with each individual having a specific task. The first session was devoted to the exploration of forces and motion, the second to water and the third to flow. Before starting the sessions, learners took a preliminary test to assess their knowledge. The learners took post-tests after each session and a month following the sessions. The g-factor was used to assess the progress and sustainability of their knowledge. Three learners were further interviewed to gain an in-depth insight into their attitudes towards the subjects, teaching formats and approaches, and outdoor learning. All other learners also completed questionnaires assessing their own attitudes towards outdoor education, movement or PE and science and technology. Based on their answers, the learners were divided into groups. The results of the learners in the different groups were then compared to see if there were differences between the learners in terms of their background knowledge, their knowledge progression, and their ability to retain information more efficiently. The findings of the master's thesis show that pupils enjoy outdoor learning. They feel better after the session, and believe that such a method of delivery results in better and more lasting retention. Similarly, the g-factor calculations also show that learners' knowledge progression, regardless of their gender or their attitude towards the subjects of physical education and science and technology or outdoor learning, is average to high. A month after the sessions, they do tend to be regressing in their knowledge, but the knowledge progression remains average in relation to their background knowledge. Analysis of the responses to the questions reveals that most learners successfully rectified their misconceptions, thus confirming that outdoor learning is an effective learning approach to do so. In the present master's thesis, the benefits of outdoor education are demonstrated and supported by research results. Concrete lesson plans and other options for outdoor learning are described. They provide other teachers with an example of how they can independently plan and deliver outdoor lessons that are not necessarily linked to the content of the content being taught. For homeroom teachers and other educational practitioners, the research findings provide insights into learners' responses, their knowledge progression, and how misconceptions about water, flow, forces and motion can be transformed when taught in outdoor settings.

Ključne besede:outdoor education

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