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Scanning electron microscopy protocol for studying anatomy of highly degraded waterlogged archaeological wood
ID Balzano, Angela (Author), ID Merela, Maks (Author), ID Čufar, Katarina (Author)

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Abstract
Waterlogged archaeological wood (WAW), approximately 4500 years old, from the prehistoric pile-dwelling settlement at Ljubljansko barje, Slovenia, was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We propose a simplified protocol for sample preparation and the SEM technique for the study of highly degraded WAW of Quercus, Faxinus, Acer, Salix and Populus, representing taxa with different wood properties. We present the advantages of the proposed technique for wood identification, the observation of various anatomical features and for the study of cell wall degradation. SEM, equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), allowed us to detect significant amounts of Fe, S and Ca with different appearances, amounts and distributions in the wood of the studied taxa. In the case of Populus, an increased amount of Si was also detected. The applied SEM protocol allowed characterisation of the anatomy of the highly degraded WAW while reducing the time required for sample preparation and examination under the microscope, as well as extending the lifetime of the SEM components (e.g., tungsten filament), compared to the situation when we analyse wood samples with a greater volume.

Language:English
Keywords:waterlogged archaeological wood, scanning electron microscopy, wood anatomy, wood preservation, EDX, protocol
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Article acceptance date:19.01.2022
Year:2022
Number of pages:17 str.
Numbering:Vol. 13, iss. 2, art. 161
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-134659 This link opens in a new window
UDC:630*8
ISSN on article:1999-4907
DOI:10.3390/f13020161 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:94546947 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:24.01.2022
Views:819
Downloads:159
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Forests
Shortened title:Forests
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1999-4907
COBISS.SI-ID:3872166 This link opens in a new window

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:01.02.2022

Secondary language

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:vrstična elektronska mikroskopija, anatomija lesa, zaščita lesa, protokol

Projects

Funder:ARRS - Slovenian Research Agency
Project number:P4-0015
Name:Les in lignocelulozni kompoziti

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