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In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of the Magnéli phase titanium suboxides (Ti$_x$O$_{2x-1}$) on A549 human lung cells
Kononenko, Veno (Author), Drobne, Damjana (Author)

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Abstract
The use of titanium suboxides, known as Magnéli phase TiO$_x$, is expected to increase in the near future due to their desirable properties. In order to use Magnéli phase TiO$_x$ nanoparticles safely, it is necessary to know how nanoparticles interact with biological systems. In this study, the cytotoxicity of three different Magnéli TiO$_x$ nanoparticles was evaluated using human lung A549 cells and the results were compared with hazard data on two different TiO$_2$ nanoparticles whose biological interactions have already been extensively studied. After A549 cells were exposed to nanoparticles, the metabolic activity was measured by the Resazurin assay, the amount of cellular proteins was measured by the Coomassie Blue assay, and lysosomal integrity was measured by the Neutral Red Uptake assay. In order to investigate possible modes of particle actions, intracellular Ca$^{2+}$ level, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and photo-oxidative disruptions of lysosomal membranes were assessed. All experiments were performed in serum-containing and in serum-deprived cell culture mediums. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of Magnéli TiO$_x$ and TiO$_2$ nanoparticles was measured. The results show that Magnéli TiO$_x$ nanoparticles increase intracellular Ca$^{2+}$ but not ROS levels. In contrast, TiO$_2$ nanoparticles increase ROS levels, resulting in a higher cytotoxicity. Although Magnéli TiO$_x$ nanoparticles showed a lower UV-A photocatalytic activity, the photo-stability of the lysosomal membranes was decreased by a greater extent, possibly due to particle accumulation inside lysosomes. We provide evidence that Magnéli TiO$_x$ nanoparticles have lower overall biological activity when compared with the two TiO$_2$ formulations. However, some unique cellular interactions were detected and should be further studied in line with possible Magnéli TiO$_x$ application. We conclude that Magnéli phase nanoparticles could be considered as low toxic material same as other forms of titanium oxide particles.

Language:English
Keywords:A549 cells, nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, nanotoxicity, ROS, calcium ions, lysosomes
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2019
Number of pages:15 str.
Numbering:Vol. 20, iss. 1, art. 196
UDC:620.3
ISSN on article:1422-0067
DOI:10.3390/ijms20010196 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:4954959 This link opens in a new window
Views:69
Downloads:25
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:International journal of molecular sciences
Shortened title:Int. j. mol. sci.
Publisher:MDPI
ISSN:1422-0067
COBISS.SI-ID:2779162 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:J1-9162
Name:Neurotoksičnost ali neuroprotektivnost nanomaterialov: vpliv biokorone

Licences

License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Link:http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:08.01.2019

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