Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is an acquired brain injury that can result in impairment of cognitive, sensory, and motor function. Performing balance and gait training should improve balance and mobility. In addition to standard balance and gait training, virtual reality, partial body weight-supported and robotic gait training can also be used. Purpose: The purpose of this diploma thesis was to review the results of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of exercise for improving balance and gait in patients with traumatic brain injury. Methods: We searched for literature in PubMed, PEDro, Cochrane and CINAHL. Only randomized controlled trials in English published up to September 2020 were included. Results: We included five randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of balance training and four randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of gait training in the literature review. The total number of 292 subjects participated in the study, with different time after the injury and with varying severity of the injury. Comparisons between surveys were hampered by different implementations and comparisons of exercise programs and different assessment tools. In the reviewed studies, there was no difference in effectiveness between standard gait training and body weight-supported training, between robotic gait training and body weight-supported training, and between standard balance training and virtual reality based balance training. Two studies of the effectiveness of balance training reported (greater) improvements of balance, mobility, and dizziness after exercise compared to the non-exercise group and after virtual reality training compared to training on Biodex balance platform. Conclusion: Balance and gait trainings that were effective in improving balance and mobility were reported in the reviewed studies, but the superiority of a particular type of training was not found in most studies (except two). Due to the low number of studies, the small and inhomogeneous sample, and the various measurement tools, it cannot be said with certainty that none of the types of balance and gait trainings are superior to improve balance and mobility. It is necessary to conduct research with larger and more homogeneous samples of subjects, to unify measurement tools and to describe training programs in detail.