Antifouling activity of synthetic alkylpyridinium polymers using the barnacle model
Piazza, Veronica (Author), Dragić, Ivanka (Author), Sepčić, Kristina (Author), Faimali, Marco (Author), Garaventa, Francesca (Author), Turk, Tom (Author), Berne, Sabina (Author)

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Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC$_{50}$) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC$_{50}$: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC$_{50}$ of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L.

Keywords:Amphibalanus amphitrite, antifouling, natural product antifoulants, alkylpyridinium polymers, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, barnacle, settlement assay, toxicity assay, swimming inhibition assay
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Number of pages:Str. 1959-1976
Numbering:Vol. 12, iss. 4
ISSN on article:1660-3397
DOI:10.3390/md12041959 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:3095119 This link opens in a new window
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Marine drugs
Shortened title:Mar. drugs
COBISS.SI-ID:23578841 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:J1-4044
Name:Apoptotično delovanje alkilpiridinijevih spojin na celice pljučnega adenokarcinoma

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding Programme:Italian National Research Council (CNR)—Institute of Marine Science

Funder:EC - European Commission
Funding Programme:Erasmus


License:CC BY 3.0, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported
Description:You are free to reproduce and redistribute the material in any medium or format. You are free to remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Licensing start date:02.04.2014

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