Advances in the understanding of the annular laser beam wire cladding process
Kotar, Matjaž (Author), Fujishima, Makoto (Author), Levy, Gideon N. (Author), Govekar, Edvard (Author)

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This paper experimentally studies the influence of conventional process parameters (laser beam power, P, workpiece, and wire feeding velocities), and the nominal workpiece irradiation proportion WIPN parameter, on ALB-WC process stability and generated clad geometry. The study was based on an extensive set of single clad experiments using stainless steel AISI 316L wire of 0.6 mm diameter and a stainless steel AISI 304 workpiece. The results show that the laser beam power required for a stable process increases non-linearly with WIPN, and this relationship can be described by quadratic regression. An increase in either the workpiece or wire feeding velocity respectively causes a reduction or enlargement of the stability region in the P-WIPN stability diagrams. The influences on stability diagrams are explained by means of the increase in the nominal WIPN to the effective WIPE, as a result of the clad height generated. With respect to clad geometry, it was shown that an increase in the WIPN causes a decrease in the dilution ratio, which is linearly correlated with the workpiece and melt pool temperatures, while clad width and height are not influenced by the WIPN. The paper further explains the complex influences of the process parameters observed on process stability and generated clad geometry using a phenomenological description of the ALB-WC process at a low and high nominal WIPN. For this purpose, heat transfer, Marangoni flow, and laser beam reflections are considered qualitatively and supported by IR and visual images of the wire-end and melt pool as well as the workpiece and melt pool temperatures.

Keywords:annular laser beam, laser wire cladding, nominal workpiece irradiation proportion, process stability, clad geometry, melt pool and workpiece temperature
Work type:Article (dk_c)
Tipology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Submitted for review:04.11.2021
Article acceptance date:14.02.2021
Article publication date:01.08.2021
Number of pages:Str. 1-12
Numbering:Vol. 294, art. 117105
ISSN on article:0924-0136
DOI:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117105 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:52257539 This link opens in a new window
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Journal of materials processing technology
Shortened title:J. mater. process. technol.
COBISS.SI-ID:30105600 This link opens in a new window

Document is financed by a project

Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije (ARRS)
Project no.:P2-0241
Name:Sinergetika kompleksnih sistemov in procesov

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding Programme:DMG Mori


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.
Licensing start date:01.08.2021

Secondary language

Keywords:anularni laserski žarek, lasersko nanašanje žice, imenski delež osvetljevanja obdelovanca, stabilnost procesa, geometrija nanosa, temperatura talilnega bazena in obdelovanca

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