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Advances in the understanding of the annular laser beam wire cladding process
Levy, Gideon N.
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This paper experimentally studies the influence of conventional process parameters (laser beam power, P, workpiece, and wire feeding velocities), and the nominal workpiece irradiation proportion WIP$_N$ parameter, on ALB-WC process stability and generated clad geometry. The study was based on an extensive set of single clad experiments using stainless steel AISI 316L wire of 0.6 mm diameter and a stainless steel AISI 304 workpiece. The results show that the laser beam power required for a stable process increases non-linearly with WIP$_N$, and this relationship can be described by quadratic regression. An increase in either the workpiece or wire feeding velocity respectively causes a reduction or enlargement of the stability region in the P- WIP$_N$ stability diagrams. The influences on stability diagrams are explained by means of the increase in the nominal WIP$_N$ to the effective WIP$_E$, as a result of the clad height generated. With respect to clad geometry, it was shown that an increase in the WIP$_N$ causes a decrease in the dilution ratio, which is linearly correlated with the workpiece and melt pool temperatures, while clad width and height are not influenced by the WIP$_N$. The paper further explains the complex influences of the process parameters observed on process stability and generated clad geometry using a phenomenological description of the ALB-WC process at a low and high nominal WIP$_N$. For this purpose, heat transfer, Marangoni flow, and laser beam reflections are considered qualitatively and supported by IR and visual images of the wire-end and melt pool as well as the workpiece and melt pool temperatures.
annular laser beam
laser wire cladding
nominal workpiece irradiation proportion
melt pool and workpiece temperature
1.01 - Original Scientific Article
FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
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Vol. 294, art. 117105
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Chicago 17th Author-Date
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Journal of materials processing technology
J. mater. process. technol.
CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
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anularni laserski žarek
lasersko nanašanje žice
imenski delež osvetljevanja obdelovanca
temperatura talilnega bazena in obdelovanca
ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije
Sinergetika kompleksnih sistemov in procesov
Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
DMG Mori Co., Ltd.
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