Advances in the understanding of the annular laser beam wire cladding process
ID Kotar, Matjaž (Author), ID Fujishima, Makoto (Author), ID Levy, Gideon N. (Author), ID Govekar, Edvard (Author)

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This paper experimentally studies the influence of conventional process parameters (laser beam power, P, workpiece, and wire feeding velocities), and the nominal workpiece irradiation proportion WIP$_N$ parameter, on ALB-WC process stability and generated clad geometry. The study was based on an extensive set of single clad experiments using stainless steel AISI 316L wire of 0.6 mm diameter and a stainless steel AISI 304 workpiece. The results show that the laser beam power required for a stable process increases non-linearly with WIP$_N$, and this relationship can be described by quadratic regression. An increase in either the workpiece or wire feeding velocity respectively causes a reduction or enlargement of the stability region in the P- WIP$_N$ stability diagrams. The influences on stability diagrams are explained by means of the increase in the nominal WIP$_N$ to the effective WIP$_E$, as a result of the clad height generated. With respect to clad geometry, it was shown that an increase in the WIP$_N$ causes a decrease in the dilution ratio, which is linearly correlated with the workpiece and melt pool temperatures, while clad width and height are not influenced by the WIP$_N$. The paper further explains the complex influences of the process parameters observed on process stability and generated clad geometry using a phenomenological description of the ALB-WC process at a low and high nominal WIP$_N$. For this purpose, heat transfer, Marangoni flow, and laser beam reflections are considered qualitatively and supported by IR and visual images of the wire-end and melt pool as well as the workpiece and melt pool temperatures.

Keywords:annular laser beam, laser wire cladding, nominal workpiece irradiation proportion, process stability, clad geometry, melt pool and workpiece temperature
Work type:Article
Typology:1.01 - Original Scientific Article
Organization:FS - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Publication status:Published
Publication version:Version of Record
Number of pages:12 str.
Numbering:Vol. 294, art. 117105
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-127263 This link opens in a new window
ISSN on article:0924-0136
DOI:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117105 This link opens in a new window
COBISS.SI-ID:52257539 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:01.06.2021
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Record is a part of a journal

Title:Journal of materials processing technology
Shortened title:J. mater. process. technol.
COBISS.SI-ID:30105600 This link opens in a new window


License:CC BY 4.0, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Description:This is the standard Creative Commons license that gives others maximum freedom to do what they want with the work as long as they credit the author.

Secondary language

Keywords:anularni laserski žarek, lasersko nanašanje žice, imenski delež osvetljevanja obdelovanca, stabilnost procesa, geometrija nanosa, temperatura talilnega bazena in obdelovanca


Funder:ARRS - Agencija za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije
Project number:P2-0241
Name:Sinergetika kompleksnih sistemov in procesov

Funder:Drugi - Drug financer ali več financerjev
Funding programme:DMG Mori Co., Ltd.

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