The diploma thesis presents the development and peculiarities of forest Buddhism in Sri Lanka. It highlights individual examples of monks who played a key role in the development of forest monasticism and presents the reasons for retreating to nature. Forest monks moved away from village life and sought refuge in caves or hermitages deep in the forests, away from society. In their lives they follow the teachings of the founder of Buddhism, Siddhārtha Gautama Buddha, which were written down after his death in the collection of texts entitled Tipiṭaka (Three Baskets) and represent the doctrinal basis of Theravāda Buddhism. In Sri Lanka, where Buddhism is the predominant tradition, there are many monasteries today, including forest ones. The forest Buddhist tradition strictly adheres to the disciplinary rules of Vinaya and emphasizes the importance of meditative practice as a path leading to liberation. Modest living in forest monasteries allows monks to explore the causes of suffering and bridge them. They dedicate themselves to their own path and progress, spend their daily lives unencumbered, and practice meditation that will lead them to complete liberation.