This work deals with Byzantian caesarean ideology in two separate sections. First part introduces primary features of the ideology itself, then deals with the ideology of the Byzantine Empire in a more detailed way. It covers some of the most important views of the discussed topic. Because of the Church’s emphasized role in the country, the presentation of the caesarean ideology is placed under its influence, followed by the actual role of the ruler, who displays his greatness with ceremonial clothing, his own residency, with titles and finally with a coronation ceremony, which played a huge part in the relationship between religion and caesarean ideology. With the coronation of Charlemagne in the year 800, this work proceeds to the separation of the Byzantine Empire from the Western Roman Empire, which then becomes a fact in the political sphere. Second part of this work gives a bigger emphasis on individual eras of the empire of Byzantian Caesars. The role of the Caesar within those eras, from the blossom of the empire till the beginnings of its disintegration, paralleled with the event in the West, which is important especially by looking at the reciprocal supplanting with the East. At the same time, it affects the weakening of the caesarean ideology.