Soils become polluted with nitrogen compounds through excessive use of fertilizers and fossil fuels. High concentrations of these compounds (mostly nitrates) cause a decrease in soil pH. As a result, the elements that are needed by the plants are excluded from the soils. The mobility of toxic elements (e.g. Al) increases. Because of the less favourable living conditions the soil biodiversity decreases. There is a diverse range of soil remediation options. These include the physicochemical principles and bioremediation techniques. The process of denitrification of bacteria and fungi releases inert N2 and N2O, which contributes to stronger climate changes, into the atmosphere. Acidic areas can be planted with naturally tolerant plants. The potential for the removal of nitrogen compounds is also represented by genetically modified plants that possess gene overexpression of the key metabolic enzymes. Symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and plants allow easier survival and greater environmental performance on both sides. Adding bio-char to the soil improves its properties and plants along with the terrestrial microorganisms have better chances of survival. Remediation with electrical energy and groundwater level management with which are created conditions for denitrification, have also been proven efficient for the nitrate removal.