The materials exhibit various physical properties. In theory two extreme examples of behaviour can be distinguished; namely an ideal viscous fluid and an ideal elastic solid. The properties of an ideal fluid can be described by Newton’s law, while an ideal solid can be described by Hooke’s law. Real materials usually express both viscous and elastic properties and are therefore called viscoelastic materials. Such materials are also hair gels. A hair gel is a cosmetic product that can be used to create hairstyles with a long-lasting effect. At rest, a hair gel is a solid substance that loses viscosity and starts to flow under the application of shear forces. Hair gel is made of deionized water, fixing polymers, thickeners, neutralizers, preservatives, fragrances and solubilizers. The selection of the correct fixing polymer and thickener is the most important for the properties of gel. Fixing polymer determines the resistance and stiffness of the film that is formed on the hair. On the other hand, the thickener determines the base properties of the gel, which define the spread-ability of the gel and how it incorporates into the hair. The correct sequence of adding components during the preparation of the gels enables the gel to be clear and homogeneous. With rheological properties we can test whether the gel has reached the proper viscosity during the manufacturing and how it behaves under shear forces. Rheology enables to discover new and to improve old formulations. Development of new polymers and other ingredients persistently increases the number of new formulations.
In the present research, the scientific academic articles are presented. The main goal was to determine the properties of hair gels, the dependence of the properties on the concentration of fixing polymers, the comparison between traditional polymers and the new ones, the resistance of the gels to salt and other possible uses of natural polymers. The articles covered the main properties and problems of hair gels.