The article places the meeting between Francis of Assisi and Sultan al-Kamil in the wider context of the Fifth Crusade. Some written sources from the 13th century are presented, which can be divided into internal and external. Of the former, the most important repre-sentatives are the Franciscan brothers: Thomas of Celano, Bonaventura, and others, who, in terms of Francis’ intentions, emphasize his desire for martyrdom and for the conversion of the Sultan. External sources, including Bishop Jacob of Vitry and Ernoul's Chronicle, also emphasize Sultan’s conversion but at the same time point out Francis’ attempts to gain truce between the two sides and free access of Christians to the holy places. At the end, a few questions are raised about the true purpose of Francis' visit to the Sultan and his attitude to the Crusades and Muslims, along with speculations about the concrete fruits of the meeting.