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Prepoznavanje nadarjenih učencev z raziskovalnim poukom
Palcich, Sandra (Author), Čepič, Mojca (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/6319/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Odkrivanje nadarjenih, talentiranih in nadpovprečno sposobnih oseb je vedno bilo pomembno za razvoj in napredek družbe. V vzgoji in izobraževanju lahko v tej smeri veliko naredimo z zgodnjim odkrivanjem nadarjenosti – tako omogočimo, da z nadarjenimi učenci delamo ustrezno, da gojimo in spodbujamo njihove prednosti, da jim pomagamo premostiti njihove morebitne šibkosti. Le skupek naštetega omogoča razvoj njihovega celotnega potenciala. Poudariti velja, da se nadarjenost lahko kaže na mnogih različnih področjih. Velikokrat so kriteriji za nadarjenost jasni – nadarjeni glasbeniki imajo na primer izreden posluh, smisel za ritem ter razvito ustrezno motoriko za igranje izbranega inštrumenta; nadarjeni športniki dosegajo najboljše rezultate v svoji generaciji; nadarjeni umetniki se znajo izražati skozi različne oblike umetnosti, in še bi lahko naštevali. Že dolgo pa vemo, da so nekateri ljudje izjemno uspešni v iskanju vzorcev in vzročno-posledičnih povezav v naši okolici. Ti ljudje so pogosto uspešni kot znanstveniki na različnih področjih in, kadar se usmerijo v naravoslovje, za njih lahko trdimo, da so nadarjeni na naravoslovnem področju. Prav znanstveniki so tisti, ki družbi prinašajo napredek, žal pa je kljub temu fenomen naravoslovno nadarjenih otrok, torej otrok, ki bi lahko postali znanstveniki, še vedno relativno slabo raziskan. Mnogi raziskovalci so že opazili, da standardizirani testi za odkrivanje nadarjenosti ne odkrijejo vseh nadarjenih. Tako so pogosto iz različnih vzrokov spregledani otroci, ki so del manjšin, otroci priseljencev, otroci, ki prihajajo iz za šolo manj spodbudnega okolja ter dvojno izjemni otroci (otroci s primanjkljaji, ki so hkrati nadarjeni). Ti otroci običajno za šolo in kakršnokoli šolsko delo niso motivirani, zato se na testih odrežejo slabše kot njihovi vrstniki, ali pa zaradi drugih primanjkljajev, kot so na primer pomanjkljiv besedni zaklad, težave z branjem, pisanjem, računanjem, novim jezikom, ravni dosežkov vrstnikov enostavno ne dosegajo. Omenili smo že, da naravoslovno nadarjeni otroci pogosto odrastejo v znanstvenike. Prav zato se zdi samoumevno, da je način učenja, ki takšnim otrokom ustreza, izpeljan iz prave znanstvene metode. Takšnemu pouku rečemo raziskovalni pouk oziroma učenje z raziskovanjem. Temeljna značilnost raziskovalnega učenja je učenčeva aktivnost, kot cilj pa sta pri tem načinu pouka navedeni tako odgovor na zastavljeno raziskovalno vprašanje, kot tudi sama pot, po kateri smo do tega odgovora prišli. V magistrskem delu predstavimo učno enoto, ki smo jo oblikovali po pravilih raziskovalnega učenja in ki bi lahko predstavljala osnutek inštrumenta za odkrivanje naravoslovno nadarjenih učencev. V učni enoti obravnavamo nekatera sodobna znanstvena spoznanja, ki še niso vključena v učni načrt in o katerih se v vsakdanjem življenju običajno ne pogovarjamo – kljub temu, da se z njimi srečujemo vsakodnevno. Prav zaradi tega naj bi vsi učenci pri raziskovalnem učenju ob tej enoti začeli z iste točke, brez kakršnegakoli predznanja. Poleg tega je učna enota zastavljena tako, da od učenca ne zahteva zapletenega računanja ali gostobesednega strokovnega izražanja. S tem smo se ognili oviram standardiziranih testov za odkrivanje nadarjenih, o katerih smo pisali nekaj vrstic višje. Učna enota je sestavljena iz petih nalog. S prvo nalogo preverimo otrokovo predznanje. V drugi nalogi se otroci prvič srečajo z digitalnim mikroskopom ter z njim opazujejo pisano fotografijo na računalniškem zaslonu. Tukaj želimo, da otrok sam navede čim več svojih opažanj. V tretji nalogi učenec z digitalnim mikroskopom sistematično opazuje, kako nastanejo različne barve na računalniškem zaslonu. Svoje znanje nato učenec uporabi v četrti in peti nalogi, ki jima rečemo tudi »identifikacijski nalogi«. Te dve nalogi namreč preverjata, v kolikšni meri je učenec razumel pravila aditivnega mešanja barv, ki jih je pravkar spoznal v tretji nalogi. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 44 učencev iz dveh slovenskih osnovnih šol. V deležu pravilnih odgovorov je izstopalo 5 učencev, še posebno pa je izstopal en učenec, ki je na prav vsa vprašanja odgovoril pravilno. Odgovore teh učencev smo podrobno analizirali ter v njih poiskali značilnosti, ki jih običajno pripisujemo nadarjenim učencem. Uspešnost učencev pri spopadanju z našo učno enoto smo primerjali tudi z njihovimi ocenami. Samo eden izmed izpostavljenih je bil med najuspešnejšimi tudi učno. Ostali sicer so učno uspešni, vendar imajo v povprečju nekoliko nižje zaključne ocene kot nekateri drugi vrstniki, ki so se pri naši učni enoti slabše izkazali. Kljub temu, da so nekateri učenci čisti odličnjaki, so se na naših preizkusih odrezali slabše kot njihovi učno nekoliko manj uspešni kolegi. Učni uspeh torej ni povezan z uspešnostjo reševanja naše učne enote.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:raziskovalno učenje
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2020
COBISS.SI-ID:23340291 This link opens in a new window
Views:179
Downloads:39
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Identification of gifted students with inquiry-based learning
Abstract:
Identifying gifted, talented and persons with an above-average competence has always been of great importance for the development and progress of the society. When it comes to education and childcare, we can do a lot in this direction by an early identification of gifted children – that enables us to handle gifted students appropriately, to cultivate and encourage their advantages, as well as help them overcome their potential weaknesses. Only a combination of the above-mentioned enables development of their full potential. It needs to be emphasized that giftedness may be manifested in many different areas. Criteria for giftedness are often clear – talented musicians, for example, have an exceptional ear for music, sense of rhythm and developed suitable motoric functions for playing an instrument; gifted athletes achieve the best results in their generations; gifted artists are capable of expressing themselves through different forms of art, and so forth. However, we have known for a long time that some people are remarkably successful in finding patterns and cause-and-effect relationships in our surroundings. These people are frequently successful as scientists in different areas and, when they focus on natural sciences, we may say that they are gifted in the field of natural sciences. Scientists are the ones who bring progress to the society; nevertheless, the phenomenon of children gifted in natural sciences, i.e. children that may become scientists, is unfortunately still relatively poorly researched. Many researchers have already noticed that standardised giftedness identification tests do not detect all gifted persons. Consequently, children who belong to minorities, children of immigrants, children who come from disadvantaged backgrounds education-wise, as well as twice-exceptional students (children with learning weaknesses who are simultaneously gifted) are often for various reasons overlooked. These children usually lack motivation for school or any school-related work, which is why their test results are poorer compared to their peers, or due to other weaknesses such as lack of vocabulary, reading, writing or calculating weaknesses, language barrier, or they simply do not reach the achievement levels of their peers. We have already mentioned that children gifted in natural sciences often grow up to become scientists. Therefore, it seems self-evident that the learning method suitable for these children is derived from an actual scientific method. This type of schooling is called inquiry-based learning. The fundamental feature of inquiry-based learning is the student’s activity, where the goals of this method include finding an answer to the research question, as well as the means of finding the answer. The thesis presents a learning unit that we have developed according to the rules of inquiry-based learning and which may represent an outline for an instrument for identifying students gifted in natural sciences. The learning unit addresses certain contemporary scientific discoveries that have not yet been included in the curriculum and are usually not talked about in the everyday life – nevertheless, we encounter them every day. This is why all students should start from the same point in this unit of inquiry-based learning, without any prior knowledge. Besides, the learning unit has been formed in such a way that it does not require complicated calculations or verbose technical expressions from the student. That way we have avoided the obstacles of the above-mentioned standardised giftedness identification tests. The learning unit is composed of five tasks. The first task evaluates the child’s prior knowledge. In the second tasks children encounter for the first time a digital microscope and observe a photograph in colour on a computer screen. Here we ask the students to provide as many observations as possible. In task three they use the digital microscope to observe systematically how different colours are produced on the computer screen. Students then use their knowledge in tasks four and five, which we call “identification tasks”. These two tasks examine the extent to which the students understand the rules of additive colour mixing that they have just observed in task three. A sample of 44 students from two Slovenian elementary schools participated in the study. In the fraction of correct responses five students stood out, one student especially, who provided correct answers to all questions. We analysed the answers of these students in detail and looked for features that are usually attributed to gifted students. The students’ performance in tackling our learning unit was compared to their grades. Only one of the exposed students was among the most successful at school. The rest were also successful at school, but had slightly lower final grades on average than some other peers who had a poorer performance at our learning unit. Even though some were straight-A students, they performed poorer at our tests than their slightly less successful peers at school. School achievement is therefore not related to the achievement at our learning unit tests.

Keywords:inquiry-based learning

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