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Vrednotenje vpliva oblik samostojnega eksperimentalnega dela na znanje in spretnosti učencev 4. razreda osnovne šole
Markič, Eva (Avtor), Pavlin, Jerneja (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/6313/ Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Izvleček
Učitelji uporabljamo različne metode in oblike dela, da zagotovimo razgiban in za učence bolj učinkovit pouk. V eni sami učni uri pogosto izpeljemo več različnih učnih oblik, zato je pomembno, da so naše izbire preudarne in v korist učencem. Izvajanje eksperimentalnega pouka v razredu je za učence vedno neko posebno doživetje, saj pouk poteka na drugačen, bolj aktiven način. Učitelji lahko opažamo navdušenost učencev ob izvajanju eksperimentov, a se nam hkrati poraja vprašanje, koliko od take oblike pouka odnesejo učenci. V prizadevanju za čim bolj učinkovit učni proces si želimo, da bi učenci pri izvajanju eksperimentov ne le uživali, temveč v čim večji meri poglobili znanje. Z magistrskim delom želimo ugotoviti, kako različne oblike samostojnega eksperimentalnega dela vplivajo na znanje in spretnosti učencev. Osredinili smo se na učence 4. razreda osnovne šole pri predmetu naravoslovje in tehnika, pri katerih je poučevanje naravoslovja že bolj strukturirano in obsežnejše. Učenci so pri 9–10 letih na stopnji konkretnih operacij, torej če učenci določene vsebine obravnavajo praktično, so jim le-te mnogo bolj razumljive in si jih bolje zapomnijo. Glede na starost učencev se prilagajajo tudi učne oblike pri izvajanju eksperimentalnega pouka. Učenci 4. razreda osnovne šole so že dovolj izkušeni, da lahko poskuse izvajajo tako individualno kot v skupinah. Natančneje: proučiti smo želeli, kakšna so stališča učencev do eksperimentalnega pouka ter pouka naravoslovja nasploh, kako različne oblike samostojnega eksperimentalnega dela vplivajo na napredek v znanju učencev, na trajnost znanja pri učencih ter na dosežene spretnosti učencev ter kakšna je samoocena aktivnosti učencev glede na obliko samostojnega eksperimentalnega dela. Izvedli smo raziskavo, pri kateri smo uporabili kavzalno eksperimentalno in deskriptivno metodo pedagoškega raziskovanja v prepletu kvalitativnega in kvantitativnega raziskovalnega pristopa. V raziskavo je bilo vključenih 61 učencev 4. razredov na izbrani osnovni šoli v šolskem letu 2019/20. Podatke smo zbirali s predpreizkusom znanja, preizkusom znanja ter poznim preizkusom znanja nanašajoč se na učne vsebine svetloba, elektrika in magnetizem, začetnim in končnim splošnim vprašalnikom o splošnih stališčih učencev do pouka naravoslovje in tehnika, s poudarkom na eksperimentalnem pouku, kratke ankete ob koncu preizkusa znanja, na katerih so učenci podali svoje mnenje o tem, kako všeč jim je določena oblika dela in kako aktivne se počutijo ter z individualnimi opazovanji izbranih učencev. Rezultati raziskave so pokazali, da imajo učenci pozitivna stališča do pouka naravoslovja, da oblika samostojnega eksperimentalnega dela statistično značilno vpliva na napredek znanja učencev, in sicer se je skupinska učna oblika izkazala za najmanj uspešno, najuspešnejši so bili učenci, ki so eksperimentalno delo izvajali samostojno. Statistično značilne razlike se med učenci, ki so samostojno eksperimentalno delo izvajali v različnih učnih oblikah, pri trajnosti znanja ter usvojenih spretnostih ne kažejo, prav tako se ne kažejo statistično značilne razlike v samooceni aktivnosti učencev. Pri oceni priljubljenosti posamezne oblike dela so se učenci v največji meri odločali, da eksperimente najraje izvajajo v parih. Tudi rezultati napredka učencev v znanju in v trajnosti znanja, kjer razlike sicer niso bile statistično pomembne, so kazali v korist dvojicam, zato z izbiro učne oblike dela v paru pri eksperimentalnem delu omogočimo tako prijetno okolje za delovanje učencev, kot učinkovito okolje za učenje in pridobivanje novih znanj. Četudi izsledkov raziskave ne moremo posploševati na osnovno množico zaradi premajhnega vzorca, raziskava predstavlja dobra izhodišča za nadaljnje raziskovanje.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:eksperimentalno delo
Vrsta gradiva:Magistrsko delo/naloga (mb22)
Tipologija:2.09 - Magistrsko delo
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2020
COBISS.SI-ID:22829315 Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:169
Število prenosov:38
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:Evaluating the effect of independent experimental work forms on the knowledge and skills of fourth graders
Izvleček:
We teachers use different methods and forms of work to ensure varied and more effective lessons for the students. In one single lesson, we often carry out several different forms of learning, so our choices should be prudent and beneficial to our students. Conducting experimental lessons in the classroom is always a special experience for the students, as the lessons are carried out in a different, more active way. We teachers can notice the enthusiasm of our students while performing specific experiments, however, simultaneously the question arises as to how much students can benefit from such forms of learning. To make the learning process as effective as possible, we wish for the students to not only enjoy the experiments but to widen their knowledge as much as possible. Through the master's thesis, we are trying to find out how different forms of independent experimental studying affect the knowledge and skills of our students. We focused on the 4th-grade elementary school students and their school subject Science and technology, where science teaching is already more structured and carried out on a larger-scale. At the age of 9-10, students reach the stage of performing specific operations, so if they acquire certain content in practice rather than only in theory, they understand and remember them much better. The forms of learning for the implementation of experimental work are also adjusted, in accordance with the age of the students. 4th-grade elementary school students are experienced enough to be able to perform such experiments both individually and in groups. More specifically: we wanted to study the students' viewpoints about experimental forms of learning and science lessons in general, how different forms of independent experimental work affect the development of the students' knowledge, the sustainability in the terms of the students' knowledge and achievement of specific skills, as well as the students' self-assessment concerning the different forms of independent experimental work. We conducted a study using the causal experimental and descriptive method of pedagogical research, intertwining with the qualitative and quantitative research approach. The study included 61 4th-grade elementary school students at a selected elementary school in the school year 2019/20. Data was collected through a preliminary knowledge test, an actual knowledge test and a late knowledge test concerning the learning contents in the fields of light, electricity and magnetism, an initial and final general questionnaire on the overall opinions of students about their science and technology classes, with emphasis on experimental lessons, we handed out short surveys at the end of the knowledge tests where students provided their opinions on how they liked these specific forms of studying and how active they felt throughout the process, including individual observations of selected students. The results of the research showed that the students have a positive outlook on the science lessons and that the learning method of independent experimental work has an essential effect on the development of the students' knowledge, namely the group learning method proved to be the least successful in comparison to the students who performed the experimental work independently. They show statistical differences between students who carried out such independent experimental work in different forms of learning, they do not show in the sustainability of knowledge and acquired skills, nor do they show statistical differences in students' self-assessment activities. There are no statistically significant differences between students who performed independent experimental work through different forms of learning, regarding the sustainability of their knowledge and their newly acquired skills, nor are there statistically significant differences in students' self-assessment of their activities. In assessing the popularity of each learning method, students generally decided that they most enjoyed performing experiments in pairs. The results of students' development in knowledge and in the sustainability thereof, where the differences were not statistically significant, also appeared to be in favour of working in pairs. Furthermore, choosing the appropriate learning method for experimental work in pairs provides a comfortable environment for the functioning of students as well as an effective environment for learning and acquiring new sets of skills. Although the results of the research cannot be generalized to the basic population due to the small sample of students, the research represents a solid basis for further research.

Ključne besede:experimental work

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