Road traffic noise is the most disturbing environmental noise in the living environment, which is increasing due to the growing number of motor vehicles. The most commonly used and most effective measures to reduce it include the installation of noise barriers. This master's thesis focuses on researches in the field of their acoustic properties. Firstly, standard test methods for determining their sound insulation and absorption are described. Secondly, the procedure of the laboratory and in situ measurements of sound insulation and absorption and the calculation of values for different cases of noise barriers are presented in the thesis. The calculated laboratory and in situ values are reciprocally compared for both insulation and absorption, and the correlation obtained is compared with the correlation of the measurement results, obtained by a research study within the European project QUIESST. In this way, the suitability of the measuring devices and the measurement and calculation procedures, used in preparing the thesis, was confirmed.