Background: The number of lumbar disc surgeries has increased over the years, but despite the success of the operation processes, the frustration of patients and post-operative pain are still factors which influence the growing need for high quality postoperative physiotherapy treatment. The purpose of this work is to review evidence based physiotherapy after lumbar disc surgery. Methods: Cochrane Library, PEDro, PUBMED and CEBP data base were used for literature review. Results: Ten randomized control trials (RCT) and three systematic reviews were included. Physiotherapy programs were conducted daily or several times a week starting from the first day after the operation to six weeks after the surgery. They were performed from six weeks to one year. The effectiveness was evaluated by clinical examination and questionnaires in different period of treatment. Selected physiotherapy methods were the criteria for the intensity of the program. Patient progress was often evaluated by pain and function status assessment. Conclusions: This literature review suggests that physiotherapy is effective in reducing pain and improving patient functional status after prolapsed disc surgery. The results showed that intensive programs are more effective compared to less intensive program, but there is currently no consensus of the most appropriate treatment. Health promotion can increase positive treatment effect. Studies showed no significant differences between supervised and home-based exercise.