Background: A predominantly sedentary lifestyle is becoming a risk factor for several illnesses. The population most at risk are older adults. The objective of the review of literature was to present the association of sedentary lifestyle with the cardiovascular and metabolic health of the elderly. Methods: The search for research projects took place in PEDro, PubMed, and CINAHL. Results: The review includes 4 cross-sectional research analyses that studied a sedentary lifestyle and monitored physical activity of the elderly with objective measurements. A predominantly sedentary lifestyle was independently of physical activity associated with increased body weight, waist circumference, changed cholesterol ratio, increased blood glucose level and increased functional limitations in older adults. Moreover, the association between sedentary behaviour and blood pressure varies between studies. Conclusions: The findings of the presented research projects suggest that the older adults are part of an age group, for which there is an increased risk, since they spend 65 % of their time awake in a sedentary position. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle is reflected through significant associations with cardiovascular and metabolic system in older adults independently of physical activity.