Introduction: Sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. In most cases they are asymptomatic, but left untreated they can leave long-term effects especially in women, for example pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. In pregnancy it can affect the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. In Slovenia screening for chlamydial infections isn't done routinely, only when pregnant women ask for it. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections, it's affect on pregnant women's health and infant development, explore the effect of infection on adverse pregnancy outcomes, specifically preterm delivery, and the health-educational and preventative role of the nurse when she is caring for infected pregnant women. Methods: A descriptive method of work was used with a systematic review of domestic and foreign literature, published between the years of 2009 and 2019. Data was gathered from the following databases: CINAHL, ScienceDirect, COBIB.SI and Medline/PubMed. 14 articles were included in this study. Results: In developed countries, which Slovenia is a part of, is the prevalence of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection between 3 and 14 %. Sexually transmitted chlamydial infection causes an inflammation in female reproductive system, which increases the risk of preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. The nurse has to continuously educate herself on the subject of testing, so that she can make pregnant women and their partners aware of the importance of early screening and treatment. Discussion and conclusion: Early diagnosed and treated sexually transmitted chlamydial infection leaves no important affect on health of mother and child, therefore it is important to recognise risk factors and symptoms of infection. Nurses have the integral role in educating and making pregnant women aware about the sexually transmitted chlamydial infection. Studies are heterogenous and are appealing for further more detailed studies in this field.