Introduction: in the last two decades, malignant skin diseases morbidity has increased greatly. One of the most common malignant skin diseases is melanoma. Incidence of melanoma is rising at an increasing rate, both globally and in Slovenia, where it is the sixth most common cancer. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect the development of melanoma. The most common extrinsic risk factor is UV radiation, that is why raising people’s awareness on protective measures against it is very important. Purpose: we want to introduce risk factors that affect the occurrence of malignant skin diseases and the role of a nurse in preventing them. Methods: in the diploma thesis, we used a descriptive research method. We reviewed and studied professional and scientific literature of the research area in the period from 2009 to 2019. We were searching for sources in Slovene and English in MedLine, CINAHL and Web of Science databases using PubMed and EBSCOhost search engines. The keywords were ultraviolet radiation, skin, melanoma, prevention and photoprotection. Results: based on the reviewed literature, we determined that melanoma is the most common form of malignant skin disease and that its incidence is increasing worldwide. One of the most common risk factors is UV radiation – both natural and artificial, that is why raising people’s awareness on protective measures against UV radiation is very important. Discussion and conclusion: the best protection against UV radiation is avoiding it. However, since that is not always possible, it is important to use protection such as protective clothing and headwear and sunscreens.