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Vpliv prehrane matere in okoljskih dejavnikov na razvoj mikrobiote materinega mleka in črevesne mikrobiote dojenčka
ID Tušar, Tina (Author), ID Rogelj, Irena (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window, ID Grabnar, Iztok (Comentor)

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Abstract
Podatke za proucevanje vpliva prehrane in dejavnikov matere na mikrobioto materinega mleka in crevesno mikrobioto otroka smo pridobili z vprasalniki o pogostosti uzivanja zivil in mikrobioloskimi analizami vzorcev mleka in blata, pridobljenih v studiji Moje mleko J43606. Med udelezenkami je bilo le 3,2 odstotkov vegetarijank. Dojece matere, ki so uzivale meso in ribe, ribje izdelke in morske sadeze so imele v vzorcih mleka visje koncentracije stafilokokov. Matere, ki so uzivale priporocene kolicine dokoheksaenojske mascobne kisline DHK, so imele v vzorcih kolostruma visjo koncentracijo bakterij iz skupine Bacteroides-Prevotella in rodu Clostridium IV. Visji vnos DHK s prehrano je zvisal stevilo bifidobakterij v kolostrumu, ter mleku. Uzivanje probioticnih mlecnih in sojinih izdelkov je znizalo koncentracijo enterobakterij v kolostrumu. Otroci mater, ki so v nosecnosti uzivale probioticni sev Lactobacillus gasseri K7, so imeli 3 dni po porodu v vzorcih blata visje stevilo bifidobakterij. Matere z normalno telesno maso pred zanositvijo in priporocenim prirastom telesne mase med nosecnostjo so imele nizjo koncentracijo bakterij Bacteroides-Prevotella v kolostrumu, zrelem mleku, ter nizjo koncentracijo enterobakterij v kolostrumu. Ne glede na nacin prehrane otroka se je do tretjega meseca povecevala koncentracija bifidobakterij, ki so postale prevladujoca skupina v 71 odstotkov vzorcev blata izkljucno dojenih in 56,5 odstotkov vzorcev delno dojenih otrok. Pri izkljucno dojenih otrocih se je v blatu zvisala koncentracija stafilokokov, dohranjevani otroci pa so imeli visjo koncentracijo enterokokov in E. faecalis, enterobakterij ter predstavnikov skupine Clostridium XIV. Otroci rojeni s carskim rezom, so bili pogosteje hranjeni z mlecno formulo in so imeli v vzorcih blata po 30 in 90 dneh visjo mikrobno populacijo enterokokov ter enterobakterij in skupine Clostridium XIV. Otroci rojeni vaginalno so imeli v blatu visjo koncentracijo Bacteroides-Prevotella.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:mikrobiota humanega mleka, črevesna mikrobiota, prehrana matere, probiotiki, DHK, prehrana otroka, način poroda, ITM, prirast telesne mase
Work type:Doctoral dissertation
Typology:2.08 - Doctoral Dissertation
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Publisher:[T. Tušar]
Year:2019
PID:20.500.12556/RUL-113292 This link opens in a new window
UDC:613.2+612.664:579.24/.26
COBISS.SI-ID:5142136 This link opens in a new window
Publication date in RUL:19.12.2019
Views:1612
Downloads:238
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The influence of maternal nutrition and environmental factors on the development of the microbiota of breast milk and the infant gut microbiota
Abstract:
Data for studying the effect of diet and other factors on human milk and infant gut microbiota were obtained with Food frequency questionnaires and microbiological analysis of milk and feces samples from the study My milk J43606. Only 3,2 percent of participants were vegetarian. Omnivorous and fish eating study participants had a higher proportion of staphylococci and S. epidermidis in their milk. Participants who achieved recommended daily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA intake, had higher levels of Bacteroides-Prevotella and representatives of Clostridium IV in their colostrum. Higher DHA intake with diet, dietary supplements, resulted in higher levels of DHA in milk and increase of bifidobacteria in colostrum and milk. Consuming probiotics milk and soy products during pregnancy reduced levels of enterobacteria in colostrum. If mothers consumed probiotic Lactobacillus gasseri K7 during pregnancy, infants had higher levels of bifidobacteria in feces 3 days after birth. Study participants with normal BMI prior to conception and normal gestational weight gain, had lower levels of Bacteroides-Prevotella species in the colostrum and in milk. Participants with a higher weight gain had higher levels of enterobacteria in the colostrum. The infant gut microbiota were dominated by bifidobacteria in first 90 days, regardless of the feeding type, exclusively or partially breastfeed. In feces of exclusively breastfed infants were detected higher levels of staphylococci and lower of enterococci, E. faecalis and Clostridium XIV. Infants born via a C-section are more likely to be fed with milk formula and have higher levels of fecal enterococci, species of Clostridium XIV group and lower concentration of Bacteroides Prevotella representatives.

Keywords:human milk microbiota, gut microbiota, diet in pregnancy, probiotics, DHA, infant diet, delivery mode, BMI, gestational weight gain

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