The diploma thesis deals with the battle of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War, which includes all the happening in the Spanish capital between June 1936 and March 1939. In the introduction and the first chapter all the basic terms, abbreviations, as well as causes that led to the Spanish Civil War and its short chronology, are clarified. The main part of the diploma thesis describes the uprising of the nationalists in Madrid, then the nationalist drive on Madrid and the fighting in the capital that lasted until December 1936. Later (in connection with Madrid) all the battles in the suburban of the capital, life in Madrid during the war and its final fall, are described. At the end of the diploma thesis the causes for the Republican defeat and all the myths, connected to the Madrid during the civil war, are listed.