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Standardne in biotehnološke metode žlahtnjenja kivija (Actinidia sp.)
Korošec, Tina (Author), Bohanec, Borut (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Žlahtnjenje kivija se izvaja z namenom izboljšanja okusa, povečanja pridelka, spremembe barve mesa kivija, dolžine obstojnosti in shranjevanja, prilagoditve na klimatske razmere ter uvedbe novih lastnosti. To nam omogoča predvsem poznavanje in uporaba ustreznih metod žlahtnjenja. Poslužujemo se tako standardnih kot biotehnoloških tehnik. Ravno uporaba in razvoj biotehnoloških pristopov pa imata vedno bolj pomembno vlogo za dosego želenih lastnosti in povečanje pridelka v programih žlahtnjenja kivija, saj pri delu s standardnimi metodami prihaja do določenih omejitev. Diplomska naloga zajema pregled obstoječe literature na področju žlahtnjenja kivija, ki navaja dosežke znotraj rodu Actinidia s pomembnejšimi biotehnološkimi metodami medvrstnega križanja in vitro. Ena izmed metod je somatska hibridizacija z združitvijo protoplastov. Ta se je izkazala kot učinkovita metoda za premostitev medvrstne nekompatibilnosti ter za hitrejšo združitev genetskega ozadja dveh vrst in izražanje želenih lastnostih pri hibridih v F1 generaciji. Naslednja je metoda medvrstnega križanja z reševanjem zarodkov, ki omogoča preprečitev zakrnitve zarodkov križancev in hkrati premostitev dormance semen. Predstavljene so različne tehnike manipulacije ploidnosti pri kiviju, med katere spadajo haploidizacija, indukcija podvojitve kromosomov ter uporaba kulture endosperma, s katerimi se lahko prepreči anevploidije ter nesposobnost nadaljnje oploditve. Sledi še metoda genske transformacije rastlin, ki omogoča hitrejše in usmerjeno izražanje želenih lastnosti, posledično kreiranje novih kultivarjev ter povečanje količine in kvalitete pridelka.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:žlahtnjenje rastlin, biotehnološke metode, kivi, Actinidia sp., transformacija, reševanje zarodkov, protoplasti, somatska hibridizacija, manipulacija ploidnosti
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2019
Publisher:[T. Korošec]
UDC:606:631.528:602.6:582.688.4(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:9233017 Link is opened in a new window
Views:69
Downloads:47
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Conventional and biotechnological methods for kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.) breeding
Abstract:
The aim of kiwifruit breeding is to improve the flavour, to increase the yield, to change the colour of the fruit matrix, to extend the subsistence and the storage life, to adapt to climatic conditions and to introduce new characteristics. To achieve these, the knowledge and usage of conventional and biotechnological methods are required. Since there are some limitation in kiwifruit breeding using conventional methods, the development and usage of biotechnological approaches play an important role in achieving the desired properties and increasing yields in kiwifruit breeding programs. The main goal of this study is a review of the past achievements in kiwifruit breeding using biotechnological methods for interspecific crosses within the Actinidia genus. One of the methods is the somatic hybridization with the fusion of protoplasts which has proven to be an effective method to overcome the interspecific incompatibility. It is used to combine the genetic background of two species faster and to express the desired properties in hybrids in the F1 generation. The next method is embryo rescue technique, which prevents the atrophy of embryos of the hybrids and at the same time overcomes the dormancy of seeds. Various techniques of manipulation of ploidy in kiwi are presented, among which are haploidization, induction of chromosome doubling and the use of endosperm culture. These can prevent aneuploidy and inability for further fertilization. The last one is the genetic transformation of kiwifruit plants, which enables quicker and more targeted expression of the desired characteristics and consequently the creation of new cultivars, as well as an increase in the quantity and quality of the harvest.

Keywords:plant breeding, biotechnological methods, kiwifruit, Actinidia sp., transformation, embryo rescue, protoplasts, somatic hybridisation, manipulation of ploidy

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