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Vpliv vodenega aktivnega učenja kemije na spremembo razumevanja kemijskih pojmov
Kolbl, Jasmina (Avtor), Devetak, Iztok (Mentor) Več o mentorju... Povezava se odpre v novem oknu, Juriševič, Mojca (Komentor)

URLURL - Predstavitvena datoteka, za dostop obiščite http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/5629/ Povezava se odpre v novem oknu

Izvleček
Raziskave kažejo, da je eden pomembnejših dejavnikov večje učinkovitosti učnega procesa vodena in strukturirana aktivnost učencev. Učenci naj bi, kjer je to seveda smiselno in izvedljivo, z lastno aktivnostjo, ob učiteljevem mentorstvu, v procesu raziskovanja po skrbno premišljenih korakih izgrajevali svoje znanje. Vodeno aktivno učenje kemije (VAUK) je eden izmed izobraževalnih pristopov, pri katerem se opisane dejavnosti tudi izvajajo med poukom kemije. Doktorska disertacija obravnava učinke uporabe VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa, ki se ne nanaša zgolj na preučevanje njegovega vpliva na kakovost in trajnost znanja o elektrolitih pri trinajstletnikih, temveč obsega tudi preučevanje vplivov drugih spremenljivk, ki lahko dodatno podprejo kakovostno učenje kemijskih pojmov z implementacijo VAUK pristopa v pouk kemije. Te spremenljivke so sposobnost formalno-logičnega mišljenja učencev, odnos učencev do kemije, do sodelovalnega učenja in do VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa (situacijski interes). Med implementacijo VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa in po njej so bile na manjšem vzorcu izbranih učencev preučevane tudi poti razvoja pojmovanj učencev o elektrolitih. Za namen ugotavljanja učinkov uporabe VAUK pristopa pri pouku kemije so bili najprej razviti učni moduli za usvajanje učne vsebine o Kislinah, bazah in soleh z VAUK izobraževalnim pristopom, ki se jih je skozi pilotno raziskavo optimiziralo. Poleg tega se je v pilotni raziskavi razvilo oz. optimiziralo tudi vse ostale inštrumente (vprašalniki, TOLT ter preizkusi znanja), ki so se uporabili v glavni raziskavi. V vzorec je bilo vključenih 383 učencev, v povprečju starih 13 let, in dvanajst njihovih učiteljev, s povprečno delovno dobo 23 let, iz geografsko in bivalno (mestnih, primestnih, podeželskih) mešanih območij Republike Slovenije. Učence se je glede na predznanje in sposobnosti formalno-logičnega mišljenja razdelilo v dve skupini: eksperimentalno in kontrolno. Učenci eksperimentalne skupine so se učili o elektrolitih po VAUK izobraževalnemu pristopu, učenci kontrolne skupine pa so bili deležni tradicionalnega pouka. Med potekom raziskave so učenci s svojimi učitelji v sedmih VAUK učnih modulih (desetih učnih urah) obravnavali učno vsebino o Kislinah, bazah in soleh. Po koncu obravnave so rešili preizkus znanja, en mesec in štiri mesece po usvajanju učne vsebine o elektrolitih pa še pozna preizkusa znanja, saj se je le na tak način lahko ugotovilo razlike med skupinama v kakovosti in trajnosti znanja o elektrolitih. Poleg tega se je na vzorcu učencev, ki so bili vključeni v eksperimentalno skupino, spremljalo spremembo njihovega interesa za učenje znotraj VAUK skupin in odnos do kemije ter sodelovalnega učenja. Na osnovi podatkov, pridobljenih z intervjuji, je bila opravljena še poglobljena analiza poti razvoja pojmovanj o elektrolitih izbranih petnajstih učencev eksperimentalne skupine. Statistična analiza kvantitativnih podatkov je potrdila, da so učenci eksperimentalne skupine, v primerjavi z učenci kontrolne skupine, dosegli statistično pomembno boljše rezultate na preizkusu in poznih preizkusih znanja. Mogoče je trditi, da sta kakovost in trajnost znanja učencev, ki so se učili o elektrolitih z VAUK izobraževalnim pristopom, boljša, kot če so trinajstletniki deležni tradicionalnega pouka kemije, kjer spoznavajo učno vsebino o elektrolitih. Rezultati tudi kažejo, da učenci z bolje razvitimi sposobnostmi formalno-logičnega mišljenja dosegajo na preizkusih in poznih preizkusih znanja statistično pomembno boljše rezultate kot učenci z manj razvitim formalno-logičnim mišljenjem. Poleg tega rezultati kažejo, da je VAUK izobraževalni pristop učinkovit tako za učence, ki so še vedno na konkretni ravni mišljenja, kot za tiste, ki so že dosegli formalno-logično raven, saj so oboji izkazali statistično pomembno boljše rezultate v primerjavi z učenci kontrolne skupine na isti ravni razvoja mišljenja. Rezultati raziskave poleg evalviranja učinkovitosti VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa z vidika razumevanja pojmov kažejo, da se v času implementacije VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa odnos učencev eksperimentalne skupine do kemije ni spremenil. Tudi odnos do sodelovalnega učenja se po koncu izvedbe VAUK učnih modulov v primerjavi z začetnim merjenjem ni spremenil. Rezultati tudi kažejo, da so učenci eksperimentalne skupine skozi celotno obdobje implementacije VAUK učnega pristopa pri pouku kemije izkazovali visoko raven situacijskega interesa, kar kaže, da je v prihodnje pri poučevanju kemije smiselno uporabljati tovrstni pristop. Interpretativna analiza kvalitativnih podatkov na manjšem vzorcu učencev eksperimentalne skupine je razkrila štiri različne poti razvoja pojmovanj učencev o kislinah in bazah ter tri različne poti razvoja pojmovanj o soleh. Te segajo od radikalnega napredka znanja o elektrolitih, kakršen se je ohranil tudi štiri mesece po usvajanju učne vsebine o elektrolitih, pa vse do nepojasnjenega napredka znanja o elektrolitih z večjim upadom štiri mesece po koncu usvajanja te učne vsebine. Zaključiti je mogoče, da so bili VAUK učni moduli o elektrolitih ustrezno zasnovani za implementacijo pri pouku kemije v osmem razredu osnovne šole. Učenci so izkazali ustrezno kakovost in trajnost razumevanja pojmov o elektrolitih, ustrezen interes za učenje kemije z uporabo VAUK učnega pristopa ni negativno vplival na učenčev odnos do kemije ter sodelovalnega učenja. Pomembna je še ugotovitev, da VAUK učni pristop omogoča tudi manj zmožnim učencem, da ustrezno usvojijo znanje o elektrolitih. Zatorej obstaja možnost širitve uporabe VAUK izobraževalnega pristopa na različne vsebine osnovnošolske kemije in tudi naravoslovja.

Jezik:Slovenski jezik
Ključne besede:vodeno aktivno učenje kemije (VAUK)
Vrsta gradiva:Doktorsko delo/naloga (mb31)
Tipologija:2.08 - Doktorska disertacija
Organizacija:PEF - Pedagoška fakulteta
Leto izida:2019
COBISS.SI-ID:12342857  Povezava se odpre v novem oknu
Število ogledov:142
Število prenosov:69
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Sekundarni jezik

Jezik:Angleški jezik
Naslov:The influence of guided active learning on conceptual change in chemistry
Izvleček:
The research shows that one of the key factors in improving the learning process effectiveness is a guided and structured activity of students. Whenever sensible and feasible, students should develop knowledge by being active, mentored by their teachers and participating in well-thought-out exploring schemes. Guided Active Learning in Chemistry (GALC) is an educational approach in which activities are not only described but also performed during Chemistry lessons. The doctoral dissertation discusses the impact of using the GALC educational approach, which does not only concern the study of its impact on the quality and durability of electrolyte knowledge of thirteen-year-old students, but also studies the effects of other variables that can further support the quality learning of chemical concepts by implementing the GALC approach in teaching Chemistry. The variables are the students’ formal reasoning abilities, and the students’ attitudes towards chemistry, collaborative learning, and GALC educational approach (situational interest). During and after the implementation of the GALC educational approach, the students' conceptual pathways of the electrolytes concepts development were studied on a smaller sample of the selected students. In order to determine the effects of GALC educational approach on chemistry teaching, the learning modules for acquiring the subject matter on acids, bases and salts using the GALC educational approach, were initially developed. Before being used in the main study, all research instruments had been optimized in a pilot study (i.e. learning modules, questionnaires, TOLT and achievement tests). The sample consisted of 383 primary school students whose average age was 13 years and 12 of the participating students’ teachers, with an average 23 years of teaching experience, and being located in mixed geographical and residential (urban, suburban, rural) areas of the Republic of Slovenia. Based on the students’ pre-knowledge and formal reasoning abilities, the participating students were divided into experimental and control group, i.e. two groups. The students in the experimental group studied electrolytes according to the GALC educational approach, and the students in the control group received traditional chemistry lessons. During the course of the research, the students together with their teachers in the seven GALC learning modules (ten lessons) discussed the content of the acids, bases and salts. Immediately after the GALC teaching and learning process (the implementation of electrolyte concepts) had been finished, the students took an achievement test. The post-tests were delivered after one and four months to prove the differences between the groups in the quality and durability of the students’ knowledge on electrolytes. In addition, a sample of the students within the experimental group was selected. This was closely monitored in their varying interests for learning within GALC groups and their attitudes toward chemistry and collaborative learning. The data from interviewing 15 students of the experimental group was analyzed in-depth to obtain the conceptual pathways of electrolytes concepts development. Statistical analysis of the achievement test and the post-tests results shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the results of the experimental and control group. The students of the experimental group have outperformed the students in the control group. Therefore, it can be assumed that the quality and durability of the students’ knowledge of electrolytes gained with the GALC educational approach is more comprehensive than that acquired during traditional chemistry lessons, which focused on electrolytes. The results also show that the students with higher levels of formal reasoning abilities achieved statistically significantly higher results on the achievement tests and the post-tests than the students with lower levels of formal reasoning abilities. In addition, the results show that the GALC educational approach is effective both for the students who are still at the concrete level of thinking as for those who have already reached the formal reasoning level, since both groups have shown statistically significantly higher results compared to the students of the control group of the same level of reasoning abilities. In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of GALC educational approach in terms of concepts understanding, the results of the study also show that during the implementation of the GALC educational approach, the attitudes of the experimental group towards chemistry have not changed. After completing the teaching process in which GALC learning modules had been applied, the students’ attitudes towards collaborative learning did not change in comparison with the initial measurement. The results also show that the students of the experimental group demonstrated a high level of situational interest throughout the entire period of GALC educational approach implementation in chemistry teaching. This may be lead to an assumption that such an educational approach is to be recommended in the future chemistry teaching. An interpretative analysis of the qualitative data, which was performed on a small sample of the experimental group, has revealed four different students' conceptual pathways of acids and bases and three different ways of conceptual pathways of salts. They range from the radical advancement of electrolytes knowledge which was demonstrated after four months of the electrolytes teaching, up to the unexplained progress of this knowledge, with a greater decline after four months of learning this particular content. We can draw the tentative conclusion that GALC learning modules on electrolytes have been appropriately designed to be implemented in Chemistry lessons of Year 8 primary schools in Slovenia. The participating students have demonstrated an appropriate quality and sustainability of electrolyte concepts understanding. The situational interest in Chemistry learning remained relatively high during the teaching with the GALC educational approach. The implementation of GALC learning modules did not negatively affect the students’ attitudes towards Chemistry and cooperative learning during the Chemistry lessons. It is also important to note that the GALC educational approach also enables less able learners to acquire electrolyte chemistry knowledge to a specific degree. Therefore, the implementation of GALC educational approach may be extended to various topics within elementary Chemistry curriculum or even to the natural sciences in general.

Ključne besede:Guided Active Learning in Chemistry (GALC)

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