Introduction: The onset of bacterial nosocomial infections in newborns is a challenge in the field of nursing that needs to be addressed in order to prevent the death of newborns. Bacterium Escherichia coli is an important pathogen in neonatal sepsis of premature babies. Early neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children with low gestational age and very low birth weight. The nurse has the expertise and can detect the initial signs of sepsis in the newborn because she has constant contact with him. Purpose: The purpose of the diploma work is to investigate and analyze the presence of bacteria E. coli in premature babies and the infections that the bacteria E. coli causes. Methods: A descriptive work method was used, which includes a review of domestic and foreign literature. A review of scientific literature, reviewed collections, specialized journals, textbooks in the field of nursing care in neonatology and pediatrics, scientific, and expert articles was carried out in the period from October 2017 to August 2018 with the help of the bibliographic database COBIB.SI, as well as CINAHL, Medline databases (PubMed), Science Direct and Wiley Online Library. Results: According to the reviewed literature, most infections with bacteria E. coli in prematurely born children are present in children who are less than 37 weeks old and weigh less than 2500 g. The most common pathogens are group B streptococci (58 %) and E. coli (18 %). Most newborns get infected with fecal strains. The detected bacteria are supposed to be brought by children’s parents, visitors, and medical staff. Indirect transmission through contact with hands or surfaces is the most likely reason for the further spread between premature babies. In children who die due to sudden infant death syndrome, E. coli is often identified. Due to the variety of bacterial strains, however, it is difficult to determine which may be the cause for this syndrome. The essential preventive strategies for the transmission of hospital infections in the neonatal section are hygiene of hands, prevention of infections in the use of venous catheters, thoughtful use of antimicrobial therapy and chemoprophylaxis, skin care, and early breastfeeding. Discussion and conclusion: Premature babies are more susceptible to infections due to their underdeveloped immune system. Bacteria Escherichia coli with a K1 capsule can cause neonatal bacterial infection, most often meningitis. The incidence of E. coli in premature babies varies from country to country. The main risk factors for the occurrence of neonatal sepsis due to E. coli infection are low gestational age (< 30 and < 37 weeks), low birth weight (< 1500 g or < 2500 g), bacterial resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics, APGAR < 7 in the first minute, an early rupture of membranes, and urinary tract infection during pregnancy. A thoughtful clinical assessment of a neonatal infection must be made prior to the birth of the child and be adapted according to the circumstances after its birth.