Knowledge, which, in addition to the enforcement of criminal sanctions, also examines the purposes of punishment and penal policy, we call penology. Somewhere till after the World War II the purpose of punishment was intimidation. The sentences were publicly conducted, torture was present. In the period after the Second World War, a new idea began to be developed on the punishment of prisoners, according to which most of the prisons are now operating. Throughout history, two basic penalizing theories have been developed, which are opposite. The first alleges that the purpose of punishment is intimidation, retaliation and strict forms of punishment, while the other is the other way around, that the purpose of punishment is the rehabilitation of the prisoner. In the diploma thesis I will review three countries: Slovenia, Croatia, and Sweden. I will describe their punitive policy and then compare them with each other based on the record of the prison rules that apply in each selected country.
The aim of the diploma work is to investigate the development of criminal sanctions from Precambrian period to date, to describe the key theory that developed in parallel and present the criminal policy of selected countries and then compare them with each other according to the prison rules that apply there.
The findings of the diploma work are, that the purpose of penalizing through time has gradually evolved from cruel public killings, to the reeducation prison sentences. During this time, two basic punishment theories were developed, both absolute and relative. The latter are used by Slovenia, Croatia and Sweden, the countries in which I have been directed, studying their prison rules and finding that there are no significant differences in their implementation.