The goal of the thesis was to build a refractometer that measure spectrally resolved refractive indices of biological tissues. In the first part of the thesis the background of the refractometry and tissue properties are presented. Next, design, specific parts and construction of the refractometer, based on the reflectance Abbe refractometer, are presented. The constructed system was characterized using air and water as samples. Finally, possible improvements of the system are presented. It was demonstrated, that the reflectance Abbe refractometer can be fully automatized and be used to perform spectrally resolved refractometry.