In this thesis we present physical properties of cholesteric liquid crystals and their usability in spherical geometry as 3D microlasers. Cholesteric liquid crystals are photonic materials in which a band gap in dispersion relation of propagating wave exist. Therefore the propagation for specific wavelengths of light are forbidden inside the structure; at the same time as a result of the bandgap, there is an increase of density of states at the edges of the forbbiden band, making low-threshold lasing possible at the edges of the bandgap. The excitation of dye molecules by an external pump laser source creates population inversion in these systems, which results in stimulated laser emission. Since the cholesteric liquid crystal structure acts as a resonator cavity and is sensitive to external stimuli, the lasing wavelength changes in response. Lasing wavelength changes continuously in the region of fluorescent emission of the gain medium for sustained/ever-present stimuli. This enables their use as sensors for measuring physical and chemical properties of the observed system. We demonstrate their sensisivity and usability for remote temperature measurements. This method enables temperature measurements in a very small volume, which is not constrained to the surface of the measured system, at distances up to tens of meters, in real time and with the accuracy below a one degree Celsius in less than a secound. In the first part we present basic concepts and equations from the area of laser physics and physics of liquid crystals. We discuss in depth the interaction of light with cholesteric liquid crystals, which enables laser operation in these stuctures. We also discuss the collection of light with the constructed optics system. The spherical geometry of the cholesteric liquid crystal droplets enables multiple modes of lasing. We describe these modes and analyze their spectra in the experiment. In the main part we describe the optical systems, that were used during the experimentation, the preparation of the samples and show the experimental results. We also discuss the possibility of impoving the optical system as well as the sensors and mention why that could be used in industry, medicine or research.