The main goal of this bachelor science thesis is to research the alternative sweeteners to sucrose among which chemically synthesised and naturally derived sweeteners are classified. The safety of sweeteners and their effect on human health is an ongoing polemic. The positive outlook on use of sweeteners, especially artificial sweeteners, as healthy alternatives to sucrose, has significantly changed. Because of the negative mentality towards artificial sweeteners among consumers, lately naturally derived sweeteners, such as steviol glycosides, have been preffered. Despite their natural resources, safety of natural sweeteners and their effect on human health have not been yet efficiently researched, therefore remains questionable. Nonetheless the demand and consumption of natural sweeteners in order to substitute high caloric sucrose with low caloric natural alternatives, have been increasing over the recent years. Due to the increased interest and consumption, biotechnological production of natural sweeteners has taken place. Furthermore, the search for new alternative sweeteners, such as sweet tasting proteins, remains. This platform has major potential as well as major obstacles standing in the way of reaching the designated goal.