This thesis discusses the use of various materials in medicine and dentistry, and their cutting processes. The first part of the thesis presents three criteria that must be fulfilled by biomaterials if we want to use them in the human body. It deals primarily with metallic materials that are present in medicine and dentistry. Basic characteristics, mechanical properties and their use as implants or as part of medical equipment are given for individual materials and their alloys. The second part includes a more detailed description of the most frequently used cutting processes of materials present in medicine and dentistry. Firstly, the basic cutting properties are described and then the following processes are explained: turning, milling, drilling and grinding. The cooling lubrication fluids, which are used in cutting process, are also presented.