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Genske skupine za biosintezo biološko aktivnih učinkovin iz skupine poliketid sintaze tipa 2
Vrh, Staš (Author), Petković, Hrvoje (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Aktinomicete so glavni vir policikličnih aromatskih molekul, poznanih kot poliketidi tipa 2, med katerimi je tudi veliko klinično pomembnih antibiotikov in protirakastih učinkovin. Poliketidi tipa 2, kot so antraciklini, anguciklini in tetraciklini, tvorijo veliko skupino naravnih molekul z raznolikimi strukturami in biološkimi aktivnostmi. Sintetizirajo jih encimski kompleksi poliketid sintaze (PKS) tipa 2. Genske skupine PKS tipa 2 so sestavljene iz minimalnega PKS (ketosintazni heterodimer (KSα in KSβ) in »acyl carrier« proteina (ACP)) in drugih genov, ki sodelujejo pri biosintezi skeleta, kot so ketoreduktaze, ciklaze, aromataze ter encimov, ki katalizirajo t. i. pozne stopnje v biosintezi teh sekundarnih metabolitov. Raznolikost in kompleksnost genskih skupin za biosintezo poliketidov je zahtevala razvoj posebnih bioinformatskih orodji za identifikacijo, anotacijo in predikcijo kemijske strukture produkta genske skupine, za aktivacijo tihih genskih skupin pa so bile razvite posebne metode. Obstaja veliko primerov študij, ki potrjujejo, da neizkoriščeni viri kot so nekultivabilne bakterije predstavljajo bogat vir novih poliketidov. V obsegu te diplomske naloge smo povzeli potencialne pristope za študij genskih skupin za biosintezo poliketidov tipa 2.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:biotehnologija, poliketidi, biosinteza, PKS, aktinomicete
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:BF - Biotechnical Faculty
Year:2018
Publisher:[S. Vrh]
UDC:604.4:615.33(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:9005945 Link is opened in a new window
Views:710
Downloads:383
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Type 2 polyketide synthase gene clusters
Abstract:
Actinomycetes are rich source of polycyclic aromatic molecules, known as polyketides, which include many clinically important antibiotics and anticancer drugs. These polyketides, exemplified by anthracyclines, angucyclines and tetracyclines, are a large group of natural products with diverse structures and biological activities. They are synthesized by the so-called type-2 polyketide synthases (PKSs). Type 2 PKS gene clusters consist of the so-called minimal PKS (consisting of ketosynthase heterodimer (KSα and KSβ) and an acyl carrier protein (ACP)) and keto-reductases, cyclases, aromatases and late tailoring enzymes designated as post-PKS enzymes. In recent years, numerous genome sequencing projects revealed the diversity and complexity of biosynthetic polyketide gene clusters. Bioinformatic approaches are needed in order to study geene cluster encoding type-2 PKS, and thus taylor-made bioinformatic approaches are needed to identify, annotate and predict the chemical output from their biosynthetic gene clusters. Gene cloning and expression technologies are being developed to allow the expression of silent biosynthetic gene clusters. Therefore, in the scope of this work we have carried review on potential approaches to study and identify novel type-2 PKS gene clusters.

Keywords:biotechnology, polyketides, biosynthesis, PKS, actinomyces

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