Introduction: Amputation causes not only morphological changes, but also psychological distress which can lead to depression and anxiety. Considering the fact that society judges the physical appearance of people, losing a limb can negatively influence their self-image. Negative self-perception means poor psychological well-being and health. Aim: The intention was to find out how a prosthesis affects self-image, as well as the main characteristics which influence prosthesis acceptance and patient's satisfaction. Work methodology: This thesis uses the descriptive method with a systematic literature review. The literature was found in the Pubmed and Google Scholar databases using the following Slovenian keywords: proteze, amputacija, spodnji ud, zgornji ud, samopodoba, as well as English keywords: prosthesis, amputation, lower limbs, upper limbs and body image. The literature used was written between 2002 and 2016. Results: The evaluation of body image is influenced by many factors, such as: age, gender, type of amputation, causes for amputation, etc. It has been established that users of upper limb prostheses have a lower level of self-esteem than users of lower limb prostheses. The latter have evaluated their body image as very good and their evaluation did not differ significantly from the one given by healthy people. People with proximal amputations have shown a lower level of self-esteem than others, and there are many differences in perception between genders. Women value the cosmetic aspect more, whereas men value the functionality of the prostheses. No differences have been detected between the groups regarding the causes for amputation. Discussion and conclusion: A good prosthesis is a tool which improves the level of self-esteem and consequently the quality of life. In spite of the numerous functional limitations, patients use them in order to feel better psychologically. The perceived body image is an indicator of the subjective evaluation of the prosthesis and of the frequency of its use. It is important for the rehabilitation team to be aware of the numerous psychological problems faced by the users of prostheses, because only then will they be able to give them advice and lead them to a higher level of self-confidence.