Today's mobile networks are complex and offer significantly more compared to the first generation. Each generation generates novelties and various improvements. The spectrum efficiency, coverage, and network capacity have increased. Mobile data throughput is increasing and speeds are similar or even higher than those in the fixed networks are. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the foundation for development of the next fifth generation of the mobile network. This thesis describes LTE Advanced and LTE Advanced Pro, which are the road to the fifth generation of mobile communications 5G. Benefits and improvements, such as carrier aggregation, enhanced MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) with up to 64 antennas, heterogeneous network, relay stations and CoMP (Coordinated Multi Point transmission and reception) are described in the thesis. Different types of communications have also been developed. These include the direct communication LTE D2D and LTE M2M, known as IoT (Internet of Things). As part of the LTE Advanced Pro standard, there is also the LAA (Licensed Assisted Access), which takes advantage of the non-licensed and licensed spectrum to increase network capacity. It is expected that network traffic will increase significantly in the following years. In the future, greater connectivity between people and devices, such as Internet of Things, is expected. Autonomous vehicles will also be developed to reduce the number of accidents and increase traffic safety. Many applications for 5G will still be developed in near future, such as remote surgeries, virtual reality etc.