In the diploma thesis a training kit for working with the development circuit board Arduino in MATLAB environment is presented. The main part describes the development of automatic control of ball on 40cm beam. The control works through the MATLAB program, where we enter the program code and the Simulink program, where we draw a block diagram. The MATLAB program is connected via the USB cable to the Arduino Uno development board, which gives the input / output signals to the system.
In the first part of the diploma thesis, we concentrate on the closed loop PI-control of a DC motor, which is connected via a shaft to another DC motor, tachometer. In particular, we perform the P and I-controller, and for each of the control we indicate its main strengths and weaknesses. We simulate the oscillation test method where, through the known Nichols-Ziegler method, we determine the reinforcements and introduce an engine model that gives us all its properties. To facilitate calculating the model, we are using Laplace transformation, where the main unknowns are gain K and the time constant T. The control is performed using the step signal and the pole method. A control system also includes a system model that shows the system's response under ideal conditions.
In the second part of the diploma thesis, the control of the position of the engine is presented in the case of a power transmission, where the main characteristic is recognition of the position or angle of the beam that is connected to the engine. The power transmission can be controlled at the input with a potentiometer or with a pulse generator, at the output there is a potentiometer that is connected to the gearbox motor and supplies the data to the analog input. The basic properties of the second-order lag system are given, where we use the PID-control, and finally the derivatives of PI-D and I-PD-control. The controller gains are calculated over the poles of the system, which are determined using the second-order system equation.
In the third part of the thesis, we use all the knowledge we have gained from the first two chapters. The main task is to control the ball at a specific point on the shaft. The position of the ball on the beams is accompanied by a light sensor that emits and receives an infrared ray, thus determining the position of the ball on the beam. The shaft controls the power transmission, which, like the sensor, gives the microcontroller data to the analog input. In the first part we carry out the PID-control, while in the second part we use the control in the state space area. In the state space we define the state variables and the matrix equations that define the relations between the input and the output of the system.