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Umestitev zagovornika otrokovih pravic v zakonodajo
Kranjc, Maša (Author), Novak, Barbara (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
V skladu z nacionalnimi in mednarodnimi pravnimi podlagami imajo otroci pravico do posebnega varstva in skrbi (Zakon o zakonski zvezi in družinskih razmerjih, Ustava Republike Slovenije, Evropska konvencija o uresničevanju otrokovih pravic, Konvencija o otrokovih pravicah). To velja tudi za postopke, ki zadevajo otroka, kjer mora država zagotoviti, da se njegov interes postavi v ospredje in da je obravnavan kot samostojen nosilec pravic, s čimer se okrepi njegov položaj v postopku. Odrasli so obvezani, da mnenje otrok jemljejo resno (pri čemer je to načelo podrejeno upoštevanju otrokovega najboljšega interesa). Otrokom je tako omogočeno, da so obravnavani kot posamezniki, ki so sposobni oblikovati in izražati svoje mnenje, sodelovati v postopkih odločanja in vplivati na rešitve. Zahteva, da je treba v okviru otrokove koristi upoštevati tudi otrokovo voljo, pa ne pomeni, da se moramo nujno ravnati po otrokovi volji. Koliko bomo to voljo upoštevali, je odvisno zlasti od pomembnosti zadeve in otrokove zrelosti. Namen ustanovitve instituta zagovornika je zagotovitev ustrezne moči otroka v postopku, ga postaviti v vlogo subjekta in mu priznati vse pravice, ki mu gredo. Otrok mora biti seznanjen z vsemi informacijami. Otrok pogosto težko sam izrazi svoje mnenje, zato mu mora biti na voljo oseba, ki ga razume ter mu pomaga izraziti in uveljaviti svoje mnenje. Pri tem mora biti otrok seznanjen s pomenom postopka in možnimi posledicami odločitev v tem postopku. Projekt Zagovornik – glas otroka je bil večleten pilotni projekt, ki ga je izvajal Varuh človekovih pravic RS v partnerskem sodelovanju z Ministrstvom za delo, družino, socialne zadeve in enake možnosti od leta 2007. Zagovorništvo otrok v Sloveniji je tako potekalo v okviru projekta in do septembra letos ni bilo pravno formalno urejeno, kar je vplivalo na uspešnost in učinkovitost izvajanja procesov. Sicer obstaja že kar nekaj zakonsko urejenih institutov za uveljavljanje koristi otroka, vendar ima vsak od njih nekaj pomanjkljivosti. Dodelana in domišljena oblika pilotnega projekta Zagovornik – glas otroka lahko privede do oblike pomoči otroku, ki je objektivno dovršena v smislu, da je na enem mestu, z enim institutom, za otroka poskrbljeno v celoti oz. je korist otroka v celoti izpolnjena. Projekt Zagovornik – glas otroka je bil torej potreben nujne nadgradnje v smislu formalnopravne uveljavitve. Maja 2017 je bil na seji Vlade Republike Slovenije obravnavan Predlog zakona o spremembi in dopolnitvah Zakona o varuhu človekovih pravic, kjer je urejeno tudi zagovorništvo otrok. Z zakonom se je želel formalizirati projekt Zagovornik – glas otroka v skladu s sklepom Državnega zbora Republike Slovenije, ki je sprejel priporočilo Varuha v letnem poročilu za leto 2015, naj vlogo in naloge zagovornika otrokovih pravic natančneje določi dopolnitev Zakona o varuhu človekovih pravic. Izvajanje pilotnega projekta, ki se je začelo leta 2007, je pokazalo, da je treba vsebino in namen zagovorništva definirati z zakonom, saj bodo le v tem primeru zagovorniki lahko pomagali uresničiti eno temeljnih otrokovih pravic, ki je bila do sedaj več ali manj prepuščena posameznim organom, ki so vodili različne postopke. Zakon o dopolnitvah Zakona o varuhu človekovih pravic, kjer je urejeno tudi zagovorništvo otrok, je Državni zbor Republike Slovenije sprejel na seji 20. septembra 2017.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:Zagovornik otrokovih pravic, Pilotni projekt Zagovornik – glas otroka, Varuh človekovih pravic, Umestitev zagovorništva v zakonodajo, Konvencija o otrokovih pravicah, Evropska konvencija o uresničevanju otrokovih pravic
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15940945 This link opens in a new window
Views:1267
Downloads:764
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Installation counselling of the children into the legislation
Abstract:
In accordance to national and international juridical basis the children have right to get special protection and care (Marriage and Family Relations Act, Constitution of Republic of Slovenia, European Convention on the Exercise of the Rights of the Child, Convention on the Right of the Child). This also includes procedures in the case of the child when the state has to ensure that the interest of the child is on the front ground and that the child is treated like the carrier of the rights so that his position in the procedure is stronger. The adults have to take the child’s opinion seriously (this is inferior to the respect of the child’s best interest). It is possible that the children are treated like the individuals who are able to form and express their own opinion and cooperate in the procedures of making decisions and influence to solutions. The demand that the child’s will has to be respected in the frame of the child’s benefits doesn’t mean that we necessarily have to act in accordance with the child’s will. The level of respect of the child’s will depends mostly on the importance of the matter and the maturity of the child. The purpose of the foundation of the Counsel is to assure the power to the child in the procedure, to set him into the role of the subject and to admit him the rights which he has. The child has to be informed about everything. The child expresses his opinion very difficultly so another person has to be available to him which understands him and helps him express and assert his opinion. The child also has to be informed with the meaning of the procedure and with the possible consequences in the procedure. The Counsel – the Voice of the Child is a many years’ pilot project, led by the Human Rights’ Ombudsman of Republic of Slovenia in the partnership with Ministry of Labour, Family, Social Affair and Equal Opportunities since 2007. The counselling of the children takes place in Slovenia in the framework of the project but till September 2017 it was not juridical formally regulated which influenced the success and effectiveness of the procedures. There have already been founded some juridical institutes for putting the benefits of the child into force but every one of them has some imperfections. An improved and accomplished form of the pilot project Counsel – the Voice of the Child can lead to the form of help the child which is objectively complete in the way that it is in one place – with one institute – provided everything for the child or is the benefit of the child fulfilled completely. The project Counsel – the Voice of the Child needed a necessary upgrade in the sense of juridical formally enforcement. In May 2017 the Government RS discussed the draught of an act of the change and supplement The Human Rights’ Ombudsman Act, where the counselling of the children is also regulated. The act was made to formalize the project Counsel – the Voice of the Child in accordance with the agreement of the National Assembly which accepted the recommendation of the Ombudsman in the Annual Report for the Year 2015 that the role and tasks of the counsel of the child’s rights should be thoroughly defined in the completion of the Human Rights Ombudsman Act. The pursuance of the pilot project which started in 2007 showed that the content and purpose of the counselling should be defined with the law. Only in that case the counsels could help to realize one of the basic child’s rights which was more than less left to individual authorities which led the procedures. The Act on the change and supplement The Human Rights’ Ombudsman Act where the counselling of the children is also regulated passed in the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia on the session on September 20th 2017.

Keywords:The counsel of the child’s rights, The pilot project The Counsel – the Voice of the Child, The Human Rights’ Ombudsman, Installation counselling into the legislation, Convention on the Rights of the Child, European Convention on the Exercise

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