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Pridržek lastninske pravice v Sloveniji in tujini
Lang, Klementina (Author), Juhart, Miha (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

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Abstract
Pridržek lastninske pravice je eden bolj efektivnih sredstev zavarovanja plačil, saj nudi ugodne pozicije obema pogodbenima strankama. Kupcu zato, ker neposredno poseduje premičnino kot objekt pridržka, prodajalcu pa iz razloga, da ohranja lastninsko pravico na stvari vse do polnega plačila kupnine. Kot stvarnopravni instrument zavarovanja pridržek v slovenskem režimu opredeljujeta tako SPZ kot OZ, medtem ko je obravnavanje njegovega obnašanja v razmerah insolventnosti prepuščeno splošnemu ZFPPIPP. Zametke instituta je moč najti že v časih, ko je na Slovenskem še veljal ZOR, vendar mu takrat niti praksa niti teorija nista bili najbolj naklonjeni in sta ga poskušali na različne načine izriniti iz sistema. Pridržek lastninske pravice je v večini primerov sklenjen v okviru prodajne pogodbe in pomeni njeno neobvezno klavzulo. Po naravi stvari gre za kreditno prodajo, ki presega učinke načela sočasnosti izpolnitve. Pridržek med strankama velja absolutno, brez zahteve po izpolnitvi kakršnekoli obličnosti, česar ne moremo trditi za učinkovanje erga omnes. Da se bo mogoče sklicevati na pridržek proti tretjim osebam, mora biti kupčev podpis notarsko overjen pred kupčevim stečajem oz. rubežem stvari. V Komentarju OZ na strani 358 beremo, da gre na podlagi takega dejanskega stanja za zoženo uveljavljanje pridržka nasproti kupčevim upnikom, kar daje slednjim vsaj teoretično prednost. Nekateri pravni sistemi namreč prodajalcu nudijo širši nabor pravic v primeru stečaja ali izvršbe kupca, saj lahko v teh postopkih nastopa kot lastnik obremenjene stvari z izločitveno pravico oz. ugovorom, brez pogoja predhodne izpolnitve obličnosti v smislu notarske overitve podpisa. Posebnost lastninskega pridržka je imetništvo pričakovalne pravice s strani kupca, ki mu zagotavlja gotov položaj za pridobitev polne (lastninske) pravice, kar lahko preprečijo le dejavniki, izvirajoči iz njegove sfere. Gospodarska poslovna praksa je ob nezadostnosti učinkov navadnega pridržka razvila obilico njegovih modalitet, ki vsaka zase pomenijo nadgraditev za specifične potrebe (mednarodne) trgovine, hkrati pa za primere nadaljnje prodaje in predelave predmeta pridržka. Te se v bolj ali manj skladni obliki pojavljajo v vseh evropskih nacionalnih redih, čeprav področje kot tako še ni harmonizirano. Kar se materije pridržka tiče, je potrebno poudariti njegovo (ne) moč v razmerah insolventnosti, katerih ureditev pa je v slovenskem sistemu zapostavljena. Čeprav se praksa pri reševanju raznih konfliktnih konstelacij nagiba na nemško ureditev, bi bila kljub temu boljša striktna opredelitev položajev v nacionalnem redu.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:pridržek lastninske pravice, pričakovalna pravica, neposestno zavarovanje, podaljšani pridržek, razširjeni pridržek, pridržek s klavzulo o predelavi, stečaj, izvršba, fiduciarna cesija, Nemčija
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Organization:PF - Faculty of Law
Year:2017
COBISS.SI-ID:15902801 Link is opened in a new window
Views:1358
Downloads:579
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Retention of title in Slovenia and abroad
Abstract:
The retention of title is one of the more effective measures of payment insurance, since it offers a favourable position to both contracting parties. It is beneficial to the buyer, since he is in direct possession of the immovable property as the subject of the retention, as well as to the seller due to the fact that he retains the ownership right to the property until the purchase price being paid in full. As an insuring instrument in rem, the retention is defined in the Slovenian administration by the Law of Property Code as well as the Code of Obligations, whereas the assessment of its behaviour in relation to insolvency is regulated by the general Financial Operations, Insolvency Proceedings and Compulsory Dissolution Act. The beginnings of the law date back to the times when the Obligations Act still applied in Slovenia, however, it was not particularly viable neither in practice nor in theory and various attempts were made to drive it out of the system. In most cases, the retention of title is concluded as part of the sales agreement and represents its optional clause. In essence, it is a credit sale exceeding the effects of the simultaneity of fulfilment principle. Retention among parties is applicable absolutely, without the requirement to fulfil any formality, which could not be said for the erga omnes effect. In order to rely upon the retention against third parties, the buyer's signature must be certified by a notary before the buyer's insolvency or seizure of property. In the commentary of the Code of Obligations, page 358 reads that on the basis of such a current state this is a narrowed enforcement of the retention vis a vis the buyer's creditors, giving the latter at least a theoretical advantage. Certain legal systems offer the seller a wider range of rights in case of insolvency or enforcement against the buyer, since in these proceedings the seller may act as the owner of the burdened property with the right to separate satisfaction or objections, without the condition of prior fulfilment of formalities in terms of notarial authentication of the signature. A peculiar aspect of the retention of title is the possession of the inchoate title by the buyer, guaranteeing him a firm position to obtain full (property) rights, which may be prevented only by factors arising from his side. Due to the insufficiency of the effects of the ordinary retention, the economic-business practice developed a wide variety of its modalities, which individually mean an upgrade for the (international) market's specific needs, and at the same time for instances of further sale and processing of the subject of the retention. These occur in a more or less consistent form in all European national orders, event though the field as such is not yet harmonized. As far as the subject matter of the retention is concerned, it is necessary to stress its power(lessness) in relation to insolvency, the regulation of which is neglected in the Slovenian system. Although the practice in resolving various conflictual situations leans onto the German regulation, a more strict definition of the positions in the national order would be nonetheless better.

Keywords:retention of title, inchoate title, non-possessory insurance, extended retention, expanded retention, retention with processing clause, insolvency, enforcement, fiduciary transfer, Germany

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