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Vaja tišine in pozornost otrok v javnih vrtcih : diplomsko delo
Pustoslemšek, Mija (Author), Skribe-Dimec, Darja (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/4776/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Pozornost je zelo pomembna za naše vsakdanje življenje, saj to pomeni, da smo se zmožni osredotočiti na dogajanje okoli nas. Prek čutil zaznamo dražljaj, na katerega se osredotočimo. Bolj kot je dražljaj močen, hitreje pritegne našo pozornost. Koliko časa bomo osredotočeni na določen dražljaj, pa je odvisno od zunanjih in notranjih dejavnikov. V zgodnjih letih je osredotočenost na dražljaj pri človeku zelo kratka, z leti pa le-ta narašča. Dobra pozornost torej pomeni, da smo se zmožni dlje časa osredotočati na določen dražljaj, kar pa je pogoj, če želimo biti v življenju uspešni. Že v vrtcu lahko zaznamo, da imajo otroci težave s pozornostjo. To opazimo, ko otrok pri določeni dejavnosti ne vztraja dlje časa, ne razume povedanega, ne sledi navodilom ... Če otrok dlje časa ne more opravljati naloge in je njegova pozornost slaba ter kratkotrajna, pa že lahko govorimo o motnji pozornosti. Motnja pozornosti je ponavadi podedovana, kako se bo razvijala, pa je odvisno od okolja. Pozornost je namreč mogoče tudi uriti. Različni avtorji nam podajajo igre in vaje za urjenje naše pozornosti. Na boljšo osredotočenost in večjo pozornost pa naj bi vplivala tudi tišina. V diplomski nalogi smo preverjali, ali vaja tišine, ki je del alternativnega vzgojnega koncepta pedagogike Montessori, vpliva na pozornost otrok v javnih vrtcih. V empiričnem delu smo v javnem vrtcu izvedli eksperiment. Teden dni smo v skupini otrok, starih od 5 do 6 let, izvajali vaje tišine. Pred in po končanem eksperimentu smo 10 vnaprej izbranih otrok testirali z avtorskimi testi. Izkazalo se je, da so se rezultati tako v eksperimentalni kot tudi v kontrolni skupini izboljšali, vendar je bil večji napredek dosežen v eksperimentalni skupini. Povzamem lahko, da so vaje tišine vplivale na pozornost otrok v javnem vrtcu. Vendar pa rezultatov ne moremo posplošiti na celotno populacijo, saj je bil vzorec eksperimenta majhen, prav tako pa bi bilo potrebno eksperiment izvajati dlje časa.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:javni vrtec, pedagogika Montessori, motnje pozornosti, vaja tišine, urjenje pozornosti
Work type:Bachelor thesis/paper (mb11)
Tipology:2.11 - Undergraduate Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2017
Publisher:[M. Pustoslemšek]
Number of pages:48 str., [10] str. pril.
UDC:373.2(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11742281 Link is opened in a new window
Views:456
Downloads:167
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:The exercise of silence and children attention in public kindergarten
Abstract:
Attention plays a highly prominent role in our day-to-day lives, as it defines our ability to concentrate on the world around us. Our senses detect stimuli and direct our attention to them. The stronger the stimulus, the more rapidly our attention is drawn to it. The amount of time spent focusing on any such stimulus is, however, determined by internal as well as external factors. While the human attention span is extremely short in early childhood, it improves with age. A long attention span allows us to sustain attention on a particular stimulus for an extended period of time and as such, is a prerequisite for success in life. Attention deficits may be observed in children as early as preschool. The child may fail to sustain attention on a task for long, interpret speech, follow instructions and the like. An inability to perform a task for a sustained period of time combined with a poor and fleeting ability to focus, however, may be sufficient to constitute an attention deficit disorder. While attention deficit disorders are usually inherited, their development depends on stimulation provided by the child’s environment, as attention may also be improved through practice. Games and exercises for attention training abound in the literature. In addition, silence is also postulated to improve focus and attention. This thesis sought to determine whether silence exercises used as part of the Montessori method of alternative education affect the attention spans of children in public preschools. For the empirical portion of this thesis, an experiment was conducted at a public preschool. Silence exercises were performed with a group of children aged five and six for a week. Ten children were pre-selected and tested before and after the experiment using a test devised for the experiment. Though improvement in test scores could be observed in both the experimental and the control group, the experimental group saw greater progress. We conclude that silence exercises affected the attention spans of the children in this public preschool. However, the obtained results cannot be directly applied to the whole population as the experimental sample was limited, and the experiment would have to be conducted over a greater period of time.

Keywords:attention, nursery school, pre-school child, pozornost, vrtec, predšolski otrok

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