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Uporaba prostorskih ključev pri osmošolcih : magistrsko delo
Lapuh, Barbara (Author), Selan, Jurij (Mentor) More about this mentor... This link opens in a new window

URLURL - Presentation file, Visit http://pefprints.pef.uni-lj.si/4769/ This link opens in a new window

Abstract
Realni prostor je tridimenzionalni prostor, v katerem se gibljemo in orientiramo v skladu s prostorskim križem, ki ga opredeljuje zgradba človeškega telesa. Na likovni ploskvi, ki ima dve dimenziji, pa realni prostor lahko upodobimo le z iluzijo tretje dimenzije. S problemom upodabljanja iluzije prostora so se umetniki ukvarjali skozi vso zgodovino likovnega ustvarjanja, najintenzivneje v renesansi. Za prikazovanje iluzije prostora služijo prostorski ključi (globinska vodila), ki so kot način upodabljanja prostora na ploskvi tudi sestavni del učnega načrta v osmem razredu osnovne šole. V tej starosti mladostniki že razvijejo zavest o zaznavnih konstancah, te pa so predpogoj za razumevanje prostorskih ključev. Vendar pa se v praksi pogosto kaže, da učenci znanja o prostorskih ključih, ko ga usvojijo, v kasnejših podobnih likovnih nalogah ne uporabijo več. V raziskavi me je zato zanimalo, kako učenci osmega razreda uporabijo znanje o prostorskih ključih v likovnih nalogah, pri katerih uporaba prostorskih ključev ni eksplicitno zahtevana. Raziskava je bila izvedena teoretično in empirično. V teoretičnem delu sem pojasnila zaznavne in likovne zakonitosti prostorskih ključev kot sredstev za gradnjo iluzije prostora, obravnavala sem tudi proces učenja o prostorskih ključih in odprla problem trajnosti znanja. V empiričnem delu sem izvedla kvalitativno raziskavo v razredu v dveh stopnjah v okviru učnih ur likovne umetnosti. Vzorec je bil neslučajnostni namenski, zajemal pa je dva oddelka osmošolcev. V prvi stopnji raziskave sem učence seznanila z vsebino prostorskih ključev, ki so jo uporabili in tudi utemeljili v lastnih likovnih delih na področju risanja. V drugi stopnji pa so po treh mesecih izdelali drugo risbo, tokrat brez spodbude k uporabi prostorskih ključev. Likovne izdelke sem likovno formalno analizirala. S primerjavo dveh risb vsakega učenca sem ugotovila, kakšno je usvojeno znanje o prostorskih ključih in kako je učenec to znanje uporabil v drugi risbi po treh mesecih. Iz podatkov, pridobljenih pri analizi del, je razvidno, da obstaja razlika v znanju o prostorskih ključih med učenkami in učenci. Dognanja raziskave pomenijo doprinos na področju likovne didaktike, specifično pri poučevanju risanja.

Language:Slovenian
Keywords:likovni prostor, prostorski ključi, risba, trajnost znanja, učni načrt
Work type:Master's thesis/paper (mb22)
Tipology:2.09 - Master's Thesis
Organization:PEF - Faculty of Education
Year:2017
Publisher:[B. Lapuh]
Number of pages:85 str.
UDC:7:373.3(043.2)
COBISS.SI-ID:11739721 Link is opened in a new window
Views:498
Downloads:107
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Secondary language

Language:English
Title:Use of visual gradients at eightgraders
Abstract:
Real space is a three-dimensional space in which we move and orient according to body planes defined by the structure of a human body. Real space can be presented in two-dimensional visual art space only by the illusion of the third dimesion. Artists were trying to solve the problem of creating the illusional space through the entire history of fine arts, especially in the renaissanse. The representation of the third dimension on a flat plane is achievable by using visual gradients that are also included in the primary school curriculum for eight grade classes. At the age of fourteen, students already develop conscience of perceptual constancies that are necessary to understand visual gradients. However, once the students have obtained the knowledge of visual gradients, they do not apply it in similar drawing tasks later on. The research seeks to define how eightgraders use the knowledge of visual gradients in their drawings, if there is no explicit demand for their use. The research is theoretical and empirical. In the theoretical part I explained the perceptual and visual principals of visual gradients as tools for creating the illusional space, and process of learning about the visual gradients. Additionally, I discussed the problem of the permanence of knowledge. In the empirical part I performed a qualitative research in two parts during art lessons. A sample was not rendom purposive and consisted of two eight grade groups. In the frst part of research the students were instructed on visual gradients that they had to use and explain in their drawings. In the second part students performed another drawing after three months, this time without encouragement of using visual gradients. Drawings were formally analysed. By comparing two drawings of each student, I established the knowledge level of visual gradients and also how this knowledge was applied in the second drawing after three months. The data showed the difference in knowledge level between girls and boys. The research results mean benefit to the field of art didactics, especially at drawing instruction.

Keywords:art education, likovna vzgoja

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